The contrast could not be more clear
Twixt growth over there and right here
While Europe is slowing
The US is growing
So how come a rate cut is near?
It seems likely that by the time markets close Friday afternoon, investors and traders will have changed some of their opinions on the future given the extraordinary amount of data and the number of policy statements that will be released this week. Three major central banks meet, starting with the BOJ tonight, the Fed tomorrow and Wednesday and then the BOE on Thursday. And then there’s the data download, which includes Eurozone growth and inflation, Chinese PMI and concludes with US payrolls on Friday morning. And those are just the highlights. The point is that this week offers the opportunity for some significant changes of view if things don’t happen as currently forecast.
But before we talk about what is upcoming, perhaps the question at hand is what is driving the Fed to cut rates Wednesday despite a run of better than expected US economic data? The last that we heard from Fed members was a combination of slowing global growth and business uncertainty due to trade friction has been seen as a negative for future US activity. Granted, US GDP grew more slowly in Q2 at 2.1%, than Q1’s 3.1%, but Friday’s data was still better than expected. The reduction was caused by a combination of inventory reduction and a widening trade gap, with consumption maintaining its Q1 pace and even speeding up a bit. The point is that things in the US are hardly collapsing. But there is no doubt that growth elsewhere in the world is slowing down and that prospects for a quick rebound seem limited. And apparently, that is now the driving force. The Fed, which had been described as the world’s central bank in the past, seems to have officially taken on that mantle now.
One fear of this action is that it will essentially synchronize all major economies’ growth cycles, which means that the amplitude of those cycles will increase. In other words, look for higher highs and lower lows over time. Alas, it appears that the first step of that cycle is lower which means that the depths of the next recession will be wider and worse than currently expected. (And likely worse than the last one, which as we all remember was pretty bad.) And it is this prognosis that is driving global rates to zero and below. Phenomenally, more than 25% of all developed market government bonds outstanding now have negative yields, something over $13.4 Trillion worth. And that number is going to continue to grow, especially given the fact that we are about to enter an entirely new rate cutting cycle despite not having finished the last one! It is a strange world indeed!
Looking at markets this morning, ahead of the data onslaught, shows that the dollar continues its winning ways, with the pound the worst performer as more and more traders and investors begin bracing for a no-deal Brexit. As I type, Sterling is lower by 0.55%, taking it near 1.23 and its lowest point since January 2017. As long as PM BoJo continues to approach the EU with a hard-line stance, I expect the pound to remain under pressure. However, I think that at some point the Irish are going to start to scream much louder about just how negative things will be in Ireland if there is no deal, and the EU will buckle. At that point, look for the pound to turn around, but until then, it feels like it can easily breech the 1.20 level before summer’s out.
But the dollar is generally performing well everywhere, albeit not quite to the same extent. Rather we are seeing continued modest strength, on the order of 0.1%-0.2% against most other currencies. This has been the pattern for the past several weeks and it is starting to add up to real movement overall. It is no wonder that the White House has been complaining about currency manipulation elsewhere, but I have to say that doesn’t appear to be the case. Rather, I think despite the international community’s general dislike of President Trump, at least according to the press, investors continue to see the US as the destination with the most profit opportunity and best prospects overall. And that will continue to drive dollar based investment and strengthen the buck.
Away from the FX markets, we have seen pretty inconsequential movement in most equity markets with two exceptions (FTSE +1.50% on the weak pound and KOSPI -1.8% on increasing trade issues and correspondingly weaker growth in South Korea). As to US futures markets, they are pointing to essentially flat openings here this morning, although the earnings data will continue to drive things. And bond markets have seen similarly modest movement with most yields within a basis point or two of Friday’s levels. Consider two bonds in Europe in particular; Italian 10-year BTP’s yield 1.54%, more than 50bps less than Treasuries, and this despite the fact that the government coalition is on the rocks and the country’s fiscal situation continues to deteriorate amid a recession with no ability to cut rates directly; and Greek 10-year yields are 2.05% vs. 2.08% for US Treasuries! Yes, Greek yields are lower than those in the US, despite having defaulted on their debt just 7 years ago! It is a strange world indeed.
A look at the data this week shows a huge amount of information is coming our way as follows:
|Tuesday||BOJ Rate Decision||-0.10% (unchanged)|
|Case-Shiller Home Prices||2.4%|
|FOMC Rate Decision||2.25% (-25bps)|
|Thursday||BOE Rate Decision||0.75% (unchanged)|
|ISM Prices Paid||49.6|
|Average Hourly Earnings||0.2% (3.2% Y/Y)|
|Average Weekly Hours||34.4|
And on top of that we see Chinese PMI data Tuesday night, Eurozone GDP and Inflation on Wednesday and a host of other Eurozone and Asian data releases. The point is it is quite possible that the current view of the world changes if the data shows a trend, especially if that trend is faster growth. Right now, the default view is global growth is slowing with the question just how quickly. However, a series of strong prints could well stop that narrative in its tracks. And ironically, that is likely the best opportunity for the dollar to stop what has been an inexorable, if slow, climb higher. However, the prospects of weak data elsewhere are likely to see an acceleration of central bank easing around the world with the dollar benefitting accordingly.
In sum, there is an awful lot happening this week, so be prepared for potentially sharp moves on missed expectations. But unless the data all points to faster growth away from the US while the US is slowing, the dollar’s path of least resistance remains higher.