Throw Her a Bone

Next week at the ECB meeting
We’re sure to hear Christine entreating
The whole Eurozone
To throw her a bone
And spend more, lest growth start retreating

In England, though, it’s now too late
As recent releases all state
The ‘conomy’s slowing
And Carney is knowing
Come month end he’ll cut the base rate

The dollar is finishing the week on a high note as it rallies, albeit modestly, against virtually the entire G10 space. This is actually an interesting outcome given the ongoing risk-on sentiment observed worldwide. For instance, equity markets in the US all closed at record highs yesterday, and this morning, European equities are also trading at record levels. Asia, not wanting to be left out, continues to rally, although most markets in APAC have not been able to reach the levels seen during the late 1990’s prior to the Asian crisis and tech bubble. At the same time, we continue to see Treasury and Bund yields edging higher as yield curves steepen, another sign of a healthy risk appetite. Granted, commodity prices are not uniformly higher, but there are plenty that are, notably iron ore and steel rebar, both crucial signals of economic growth.

Usually, in this type of market condition, the dollar tends to decline. This is especially so given the lack of volatility we have observed encourages growth in carry trades, with investors flocking to high yield currencies like MXN, IDR, BRL and ZAR. However, it appears that at this juncture, the carry trade has not yet come back into favor, as that bloc of currencies has shown only modest strength, if any, hardly the signal that investor demand has increased.

This leaves us with an unusual situation where the dollar is reasonably well-bid despite the better risk appetite. Perhaps investors are buying dollars to jump on board the US equity train, but I suspect there is more to the movement than this. Investigations continue.

Narrowing our focus a bit more, it is worthwhile to consider the key events upcoming, notably next week’s ECB and BOJ meetings and the following week’s FOMC and BOE meetings. Interestingly, based on current expectations, the Fed meeting is likely to be far less impactful than either the ECB or BOE.

First up is the BOJ, where there is virtually no expectation of any policy changes, and in fact, that is true for the entire year. With the policy rate stuck at -0.10%, futures markets are actually pricing in a 5bp tightening by the end of the year. Certainly, Japan has gone down the road of increased fiscal stimulus, and if you recall last month’s outcome, the BOJ essentially admitted that they would not be able to achieve their 2.0% inflation target during any forecastable timeline. With that is the recent history, and given that inflation remains either side of 1.0%, the BOJ is simply out of bullets, and so will not be doing anything.

The ECB, however, could well be more interesting as the market awaits their latest thoughts on the policy review. Madame Lagarde has made a big deal about how they are going to review procedures and policy initiatives to see if they are designed to meet their goals. Some of the things that have been mooted are a change in the inflation target from “close to but below 2.0%” to either a more precise target or a target range, like 1.5% – 2.5%. Of even more interest is the fact that they have begun to figure out that their current inflation measures are inadequate, as they significantly underweight housing expense, one of the biggest expenses for almost every household. Currently, housing represents just 4% of the index. As a contrast, in the US calculation, housing represents about 41% of the index! And the anecdotes are legion as to how much housing costs have risen throughout European cities while the ECB continues to pump liquidity into markets because they think inflation is missing. Arguably, that has the potential to change things dramatically, because a revamped CPI calculation could well inform that the ECB has been far too easy in policy and cause a fairly quick reversal. And that, my friends, would result in a much higher euro. Today however, the single currency has fallen prey to the dollar’s overall strength and is lower by 0.25%.

As I mentioned, I don’t think the FOMC meeting will be very interesting at all, as there is a vanishingly small chance they change policy given the economy keeps chugging along and inflation has been fairly steady, if not rising to their own 2.0% target. The BOE meeting, however, has the chance to be much more interesting. This morning’s UK Retail Sales data was massively disappointing, with December numbers printing at -0.8%, -0.6% excluding fuel. This was hugely below the expected outcomes of +0.8% and +0.6% respectively. Apparently, Boris’s electoral victory did not convince the good people of England to open their wallets. And remember, this was during Christmas season, arguably the busiest retail time of the year. It can be no surprise that the futures market is now pricing a 75% chance of a rate cut and remember, earlier this week we heard from three different BOE members that cutting rates was on the table. The pound, which has been rallying for the entire week has turned around and is lower by 0.2% this morning with every chance that this slide continues for the next week or two until the meeting crystalizes the outcome.

The other noteworthy news was Chinese data released last night, which showed that GDP, as expected, grew at 6.0%, Retail Sales also met expectations at 8.0%, while IP (+6.9%) and Fixed Asset Investment (+5.4%) were both a bit better than forecast. The market sees this data as proof that the economy there is stabilizing, especially with the positive vibe of the just signed phase one trade deal. The renminbi has benefitted, rallying a further 0.3% on the session, and has now gained 4.6% since its weakest point in early September 2019. This trend has further to go, of that I am confident.

On the data front this morning, we have Housing Starts (exp 1380K), Building Permits (1460K), IP (-0.2%), Capacity Utilization (77.0%), Michigan Sentiment (99.3) and JOLT’s Job Openings (7.25M). So plenty of news, but it is not clear it is important enough to change opinions in the FX market. As such, I expect that today’s dollar strength is likely to continue, but certainly not in a major way.

Good luck and good weekend
Adf

Pundits Maligned

Phase one of the trade deal’s been signed
And though many pundits maligned
The outcome, it’s clear
That in the, term, near
Its impact on trading’s been kind

Amid a great deal of hoopla yesterday morning, President Trump signed the long-awaited phase one trade deal with China. The upshot is that the US has promised to roll back the tariffs imposed last September by 50%, as well as delay the mooted December tariffs indefinitely while the Chinese have promised to purchase upwards of $95 billion in US agricultural products over the next two years as well as agreeing to crack down on IP theft. In addition, the Chinese have committed to preventing excess weakness in the renminbi, and in fact CNY has been strengthening steadily for the past month as the negotiations came to an end. For example, this morning CNY is firmer by 0.15% and since mid-December it has rallied nearly 2.0%. Clearly there are larger trade issues outstanding between the two nations, notably forced technology transfer as well as numerous non-tariff barriers, but something is better than nothing.

Taking a step back, though, the bilateral nature of the deal is what has many pundits and economists unhappy. Certainly the economic theories I was taught, and that have been prevalent since David Ricardo first developed the theory of comparative advantage in 1817, indicate that multilateral trade is a better outcome for all concerned. Alas, the current political backdrop, where populism has exploded in response to the unequal outcomes from the globalization phenomenon of the past sixty years, has tarred multilateralism with a very bad reputation. And while it is far outside the purview of this commentary to dissect the issues, it is important to understand they exist and how they may impact markets. Given that the relative value of a nation’s currency is an important driver of trade outcomes, we cannot ignore it completely. Ultimately, as things currently stand, the market has seen this deal as a positive outcome, and risk appetite remains strong. As such, haven assets like the yen, dollar and Swiss franc are likely to remain on the back foot for the time being.

Beside the trade story, there has been scant new information on which to base trading decisions. Important data remains limited with the only notable print being German CPI at 1.5%, exactly as expected, although EU Car registrations bucked the trend and rose sharply, 21.7%, perhaps indicating we have seen a bottom on the Continent. But in reality, the market is now looking for the next big thing, and quite frankly, nobody really knows what that is. After all, the Fed has promised it is on hold, as are the ECB and BOJ, at least for the time being. Perhaps it is the BOE’s meeting in two weeks’ time, where the market continues to price in a growing probability of a rate cut. Of course, if the market is pricing it in, it is not likely to be that big a surprise, is it?

So in an uninspiring market, let’s look at what is coming up in today’s session. On the data front we see Initial Claims (exp 218K) and then Retail Sales (0.3%, 0.5% ex autos) as well as Philly Fed (3.8). Arguably, of just as much importance for the global economic outlook is tonight’s Chinese data where we will see; GDP (6.0%), Fixed Asset Investment (5.2%), Retail Sales (7.9%) and IP (5.9%). Remember, 6.0% growth has been President Xi’s target, and given the recent trajectory lower, any weaker than expected data is likely to be a risk-off sign, although it is likely to see a PBOC response in short order as well. Meanwhile, the US consumer continues to play its supporting role in the global economy, so any downside in this morning’s data is also likely to be a stock market negative.

On the speaker front, there are no Fed speakers today, although Philly’s Patrick Harker will regale us tomorrow. Later this afternoon ECB President Lagarde will be on the tape, and given she is still learning how much impact her words have on markets, there is always a chance of some unintentional excitement. Finally, yesterday, for the first time, we heard a Fed speaker explain that even though not-QE is not QE, the market may still consider it to be QE and the resulting rise in the price of risk assets may well be excessive. Dallas Fed President Kaplan is the first Fed member to publically admit that they may need to address this issue going forward. Certainly, the fact that the short-term repo program continues to be extended, and is now expected to run through April, rather than the original February completion, is an indication that the Fed still does not have control over the money markets. It is this last point which holds the potential to drive more significant market moves in the event of a communication or policy error. Just not today.

The dollar is mildly softer overall this morning, while we are seeing a very modest bias higher in equity markets around the world. Treasury yields are unchanged, just below 1.78%, and the previous narratives regarding recession probabilities and curve inversions as well as ongoing QE activities have just faded into the background. It all adds up to what is likely to be another quiet day in the FX markets, with no compelling story to drive movement.

Good luck
Adf

 

Feelings of Disquietude

In Germany, growth was subdued
In England, inflation’s now food
For thought rates will fall
As hawks are in thrall
To feelings of disquietude

This morning is a perfect lesson in just how little short-term movement is dependent on long-term factors like economic data. German GDP data was released this morning showing that for 2019 the largest economy in the Eurozone grew just 0.6%, which while expected was still the slowest rate in six years. And what’s more, forecasts for 2020 peg German GDP to grow at 0.7%, hardly enticing. Yet as I type, the euro is the best performer in the G10 space, having risen 0.2%. How can it be that weak data preceded this little pop in the currency? Well, here is where the short-term concept comes in; it appears there was a commercial order going through the market that triggered a series of stop-loss orders at 1.1140, and lo and behold, the euro jumped another 0.15%. My point is that any given day’s movement is only marginally related to the big picture and highly reliant on the short term flows and activities of traders and investors. So forecasts, like mine, that call for the euro to rally during this year are looking at much longer term issues, which will infiltrate trading views over time, not a prescription to act on intraday activity!

Meanwhile, the pound has come under modestly renewed pressure after CPI in the UK surprisingly fell to 1.3% with the core reading just 1.4%. This data, along with further comments by the most dovish BOE member, Michael Saunders, has pushed the probability of a UK rate cut at the end of the month, as measured by futures prices, up to 65%. Remember, yesterday this number was 47% and Friday just 25%. At this point, market participants are homing in on the flash PMI data to be released January 24 as the next crucial piece of data. The rationale for this is that the weakness that we have seen recently from UK numbers has all been backward-looking and this PMI reading will be the first truly forward looking number in the wake of the election in December. FYI, current expectations are for a reading of 47.6 in Manufacturing and 49.4 in Services, but those are quite preliminary. I expect that they will adjust as we get closer. In the meantime, look for the pound to remain under pressure as we get further confirmation of a dovish bias entering the BOE discussion. As to Brexit, it will happen two weeks from Friday and the world will not end!

Finally, the last G10 currency of interest today is the Swiss franc, which is vying with the euro for top performer, also higher by 0.2% this morning, as concern has grown over its ability to continue its intervention strategy in the wake of the US adding Switzerland back to the list of potential currency manipulators. Now, the SNB has been intervening for the past decade as they fight back against the franc’s historic role as a safe haven. The problem with that role is the nation’s manufacturing sector has been extraordinarily pressured by the strength of the franc, thus reducing both GDP and inflation. It seems a bit disingenuous to ask Switzerland to adjust their macroeconomic policies, as the US is alleged to have done, in order to moderate CHF strength given they already have the lowest negative interest rates in the world and run a large C/A surplus. But maybe that’s the idea, the current administration wants the Swiss to be more American and spend money they don’t have. Alas for President Trump, that seems highly unlikely. A bigger problem for the Swiss will be the fact that the dollar is likely to slide all year as QE continues, which will just exacerbate the Swiss problem.

Turning to the emerging market bloc, today’s biggest mover is BRL, where the real is opening lower by 0.5% after weaker than expected Retail Sales data (0.6%, exp 1.2%) point to ongoing weakness in the economy and increase the odds that the central bank will cut rates further, to a new record low of just 4.25%. While this still qualifies as a high-yielder in today’s rate environment, ongoing weakness in the Brazilian economy offer limited prospects for a reversal in the near-term. Do not be surprised to see BRL trade up to its recent highs of 4.25 before the bigger macro trend of USD weakness sets in.

And that’s been today’s currency story. I have neglected the signing of the phase one trade deal because that story has been so over reported there is exactly zero I can add to the discussion. In addition, the outcome has to be entirely priced into the market at this point. Equity markets have had difficulty trading higher during the past two sessions, but they certainly haven’t declined in any serious manner. As earnings season gets underway, investors seem to have turned their attention to more micro issues rather than the economy. Treasury yields have been edging lower, interestingly, despite the general good feelings about the economy and risk, but trying to determine if the stock or bond market is “correct” has become a tired meme.

On the data front, this morning brings PPI (exp 1.3%, 1.3% core) but given that we saw CPI yesterday, this data is likely to be completely ignored. We do get Empire Manufacturing (3.6) and then at 2:00 the Fed releases its Beige Book. We also hear from three Fed speakers, Harker, Daly and Kaplan, but at this point, the Fed has remained quite consistent that they have little interest in doing anything unless there is a significant change in the economic narrative. And that seems unlikely at this time.

And so, this morning the dollar is under modest pressure, largely unwinding yesterday’s modest strength. It seems unlikely that we will learn anything new today to change the current market status of limited activity overall.

Good luck
Adf

A Dangerous Game

In ‘Nineteen the story was trade
As Presidents Trump and Xi played
A dangerous game
While seeking to blame
The other for why growth decayed

But ‘Twenty has seen both adjust
Their attitudes and learn to trust
That working together,
Like birds of a feather,
Results in an outcome, robust

In a very quiet market, the bulk of the discussion overnight has been about the upcoming signing ceremony in the East Room of the White House tomorrow, where the US and China will agree the phase one piece of a trade deal. Despite the fact that this has been widely expected for a while, it seems to be having a further positive impact on risk assets. Today’s wrinkle in the saga has been the US’ removal of China from the Treasury list of currency manipulators. Back in August, in a bit of a surprise, the US added China to that list formally, rather than merely indicating the Chinese were on notice, as President Trump sought to apply maximum pressure during the trade negotiations. Now that the deal is set to be signed, apparently the Chinese have made “enforceable commitments” not to devalue the yuan going forward, which satisfied the President and led to the change in status. The upshot is that the ongoing positive risk framework remains in place thus supporting equity markets while undermining haven assets. In other words, just another day where the politicians seek to anesthetize market behavior, and have been successful doing so.

Chinese trade data released last night was quite interesting on two fronts; first that the Chinese trade surplus with the US shrank 11%, exactly what the President was seeking, and second, that the Chinese found many substitute markets in which to sell their wares as their overall trade surplus rose to $425 billion from 2018’s $351 billion. And another positive for the global growth watch was that both exports (+7.6%) and imports (+17.7%) grew nicely, implying that economic growth in the Middle Kingdom seems to be stabilizing. As to the yuan, it has been on a tear lately, rising 1.4% this year and nearly 4.5% since early September right after the US labeled China a currency manipulator. So, here too, President Trump seems to have gotten his way with the Chinese currency having regained almost all its losses since the November 2016 election. Quite frankly, it seems likely that the yuan has further to climb as prospects for Chinese growth brightened modestly and investors continue to hunt for yield and growth opportunities.

But away from the trade story there is precious little else to discuss. The pound remains under pressure (and under 1.30) as the idea of a BOE rate cut at the end of the month gains credence. Currently the market is pricing in a 47% probability of a rate cut, which is up from 23% on Friday. After yesterday’s weak GDP data, all eyes are focused on tomorrow’s UK CPI data as well as Friday’s Retail Sales where any weakness in either one is likely to see the market push those probabilities up even further.

As haven assets are shed, the Japanese yen has finally breached the 110 level for the first time since May and quite frankly there doesn’t appear to be any reason for the yen to stop declining, albeit slowly. Barring some type of major risk-off event, which is always possible, the near term portents are for further weakness. However, as the year progresses, ongoing Fed QE should serve to reverse this movement.

Even the Emerging markets have been dull overnight, with no currency moving more than 0.3%, which in some cases is nearly the bid-ask spread. For now, most market participants have become quite comfortable that no disasters are looming and that, with the US-China trade deal about to be completed, there is less likelihood of any near-term angst on that front. While a phase two deal has been mooted, given the issues that the US has indicated are important (forced technology transfer, state subsidies), and the fact that they are essentially non-starters in China, it seems highly improbable that there will be any progress on that issue this year.

On the data front, this morning brings the first US data of the week, where NFIB Small Business Optimism actually disappointed at 102.7 and the market is now awaiting December CPI data (exp 2.4%, 2.3% ex food & energy) at 8:30. The headline forecast represents a pretty big uptick from November, but that is directly related to oil’s price rally last month. The core, however, remains unchanged and well above the 2.0% Fed target. Of course that target is based on PCE, something that is designed to print lower, and there has been abundant evidence that the Fed’s idea of the target is to miss it convincingly on the high side. In other words, don’t look for the Fed to even consider a tighter policy stance unless CPI has a 3 handle.

And that’s really it for the session. Equity futures are pointing slightly higher as European equity indices are edging in that direction as well. Treasury yields are hovering just above 1.80%, little changed on the day and showing no directional bias for the past several weeks. If anything, the dollar is slightly higher this morning, but I would be surprised if this move extends much further at all.

Good luck
Adf

Growth Can Be Spurred

In England this morning we heard
From Vlieghe, the BOE’s third
Incumbent to say
That given his way
He’d cut rates so growth can be spurred

The pound is under pressure this morning after Gertjan Vlieghe became the third MPC member in the past week, after Carney and Tenreyo, to explain that a rate cut may be just the ticket at this point in time. Adding these three to the two members who had previously voted to cut rates, Haskel and Saunders, brings the number of doves to five, a majority on the committee. It can be no surprise that the pound has suffered, nor that interest rate markets have increased the probability of a 25bp rate cut at the January 30 meeting from below 25% last week to 50% now. Adding to the story was the release of worse than expected November IP (-1.2%) and GDP (-0.3%) data, essentially emphasizing the concerns that the UK economy has a long way to go to recover from the Brexit uncertainty.

However, before you turn too negative on the UK economy, remember that this is backward-looking data, as November was more than 6 weeks ago, and in the interim we have had the benefit of the resounding electoral victory by Boris Johnson. This is not to say that the UK economy cannot deteriorate further, just that there has been a palpable change in the tone of commentary in the UK as Brexit uncertainty has receded. Granted, the question of the trade deal with the EU, which is allegedly supposed to be signed by the end of 2020, remains open. But it is very difficult for market participants to look that far ahead and try to anticipate the outcome. And if anything, Boris has the fact that he was able to renegotiate the original Brexit deal in just six weeks’ time working in his favor. While previous assumptions had been that trade deals take years and years to negotiate, it is clear that Boris doesn’t subscribe to that theory. Personally, I wouldn’t bet against him getting it done.

But for now, the pound is the worst performer of the session, and given today’s news, that should be no surprise. However, I maintain my view that current levels represent an excellent opportunity for payables hedgers to add to hedges.

The other mover of note in the G10 space is the yen, which has fallen 0.4% after traders were able to take advantage of a Japanese holiday last night (Coming-of-age Day) and the associated reduced liquidity to push the dollar above a key technical resistance point at 109.72. Stop-loss orders at that level led to a quick jump at 4:00 this morning, and given the broad risk-on attitude in markets (equity markets worldwide continue to rebound from concerns over further Middle East flare ups), it certainly feels like traders are going to push the dollar up to 110, a level not seen since May. However, the other eight currencies in the G10 have been unable to generate any excitement whatsoever and are very close to unchanged this morning.

In the EMG space, Indonesia’s rupiah is once again the leader in the clubhouse, rising a further 0.7% after the central bank reiterated it would allow the currency to appreciate and following an announcement by the UAE that it would make a large investment in the nation’s (Indonesia’s) sovereign wealth fund. The resultant rally, to the rupiah’s strongest level in almost a year, has been impressive, but there is no reason to believe that it cannot continue for another 5% before finding a new home. This is especially true if we continue to hear good things regarding the US-China trade situation. Trade has also underpinned the second-best performer of the day in this space, KRW, which has rallied 0.5%, on the trade story.

While those are the key stories thus far this session, we do have a full week’s worth of data to anticipate, led by CPI, Retail Sales and Housing data.

Tuesday NFIB Small Biz Optimism 104.9
  CPI 0.3% (2.4% Y/Y)
  -ex food & energy 0.2% (2.3% Y/Y)
Wednesday PPI 0.2% (1.3% Y/Y)
  -ex food & energy 0.2% (1.3% Y/Y)
  Empire Manufacturing 3.5
  Fed’s Beige Book  
Thursday Initial Claims 218K
  Philly Fed 3.0
  Retail Sales 0.3%
  -ex autos 0.5%
  Business Inventories -0.1%
Friday Housing Starts 1380K
  Building Permits 1460K
  IP -0.1%
  Capacity Utilization 77.0%
  Michigan Sentiment 99.3
  JOLTS Job Openings 7.264M

Source: Bloomberg

So clearly there is plenty on the docket with an opportunity to move markets, and we also hear from another six Fed speakers. While you and I may be concerned about rising prices, it has become abundantly clear that the Fed is desperate to see them rise further, so the only possible reaction to a CPI miss would be on the weak side, which would likely see an equity rally on the assumption that even more stimulus is coming. Otherwise, I think Retail Sales will be the data point of choice for the market, with weakness here also leading to further equity strength on the assumption that the Fed will add to their current policy.

And it is hard to come up with a good reason for any Fed speaker to waver from the current mantra of no rate cuts, but ongoing support for the repo market and a growing balance sheet. And of course, that underlies my thesis that the dollar will eventually fall. Just not today it seems!

Good luck
Adf

A Good Place

Said Clarida, “We’re in a good place”
With regard to the policy space
Later Bullard explained
That inflation’s restrained
And a rise above two he’d embrace

“At this point I think it would be a welcome development, even if it pushed inflation above target for a time. I think that would be welcome, so bring it on.” So said St Louis Fed President James Bullard, the uber-dove on the FOMC, yesterday when discussing the current policy mix and how it might impact their inflation goals. Earlier, Vice-chairman Richard Clarida explained that while things currently seem pretty good, the risks remain to the downside and that the Fed would respond appropriately to any unexpected weakness in economic data. Not wanting to be left out, BOE member Silvana Tenreyo, also explained that she could easily be persuaded to vote to cut rates in the UK in the event that the economic data started to slow at all.

My point is that even though the central banking community has not seemed to be quite as aggressive with regard to policy ease lately, the reality is that they are collectively ready to respond instantly to any sign that the current global economic malaise could worsen. And of course, the ECB is still expanding its balance sheet by €20 billion per month while the Fed is growing its own by more than $60 billion per month. Any thought that the central bank community was backing away from interventionist policy needs to be discarded. While they continue to call, en masse, for fiscal stimulus, they are not about to step back and reduce their influence on markets and the economy. You can bet that the next set of rate moves will be lower, pretty much everywhere around the world. The only question is which bank will move first.

This matters because FX is a relative game, where currency movement is often based on the comparison between two nations’ monetary regimes and outlooks, with everyone looking at the same data, and central bank groupthink widespread, every response to a change in the economic outlook will be the same; first cut rates, then buy bonds, and finally promise to never raise rates again! And this is why I continue to forecast the dollar to decline as 2020 progresses, despite its robust early performance, the Fed has more room to cut rates than any other central bank, and that will ultimately undermine the dollar’s relative value.

But that is not the case today, or this week really, where the dollar has been extremely robust even with the tensions in Iran quickly dissipating. I think one of the reasons this has been the case is that the US data keeps beating expectations. As we head into the payroll report later this morning, recall that; the Trade Deficit shrunk, ISM Non-Manufacturing beat expectations, Factory Orders beat expectations, ADP Employment beat expectations and Initial Claims fell more than expected. The point is that no other nation has seen a run of data that has been so positive recently, and there has been an uptick in investment inflows to the US, notably in the stock market, which once again traded to record highs yesterday. While this continues to be the case, the dollar will likely remain well bid. However, ultimately, I expect the ongoing QE process to undermine the greenback.

Speaking of the payroll report, here are the latest median expectations according to Bloomberg:

Nonfarm Payrolls 160K
Private Payrolls 153K
Manufacturing Payrolls 5K
Unemployment Rate 3.5%
Average Hourly Earnings 0.3% (3.1% Y/Y)
Average Weekly Hours 34.4
Canadian Change in Employment 25.0K
Canadian Hourly Wage Rate 4.2%
Canadian Unemployment Rate 5.8%
Canadian Participation Rate 65.6%

With the better than expected ADP report, market participants are leaning toward a higher number than the economists, especially given the overall robustness of the recent data releases. At this point, I would estimate that any number above 180K is likely to see some immediate USD strength, although I would not be surprised to see that ebb as the session progresses amid profit-taking by traders who have been long all week. Ironically, I think that a weak number (<130K) is likely to be a big boost for stocks as expectations of Fed ease rise, although the dollar is unlikely to move much on the outcome.

On the Canadian front, they have been in the midst of a terrible run regarding employment, with last month’s decline of 71.2K the largest in more than a decade. While inflation up north has been slightly above target, if we continue to see weaker economic data there, the BOC is going to be forced to cut rates sooner than currently priced (one cut by end of the year) as there is no way they will be able to resist the pressure to address slowing growth, especially given the global insouciance regarding inflation. While that could see the Loonie suffer initially, I still think the long term trend is for the USD to soften.

As to the rest of the world, the overnight session was not very scintillating. The dollar had a mixed performance overall, rising slightly against most of its G10 brethren, but faring less well against a number of EMG currencies, notably the higher yielders. For example, IDR was the big winner overnight, rising 0.6% to its strongest point since April 2018, after the central bank explained that it would not be intervening to prevent further strength and investors flocked to the Indonesian bond market with its juicy 5+% yield. Similarly, INR was also a winner, rising 0.4% as investors chased yield there as well. You can tell that fears over an escalation of the US-Iran conflict have virtually disappeared as these are two currencies that are likely to significantly underperform in the event things got hot there.

On the downside, Hungary’s forint was today’s weakest performer, falling 0.5% after PM Victor Orban explained that Hungary joining the euro would be “catastrophic”. While I agree with the PM, I think the market response is based on the idea that if the Hungarians were leaning in that direction, the currency would likely rally before joining.

On the G10 front, both French and Italian IP were released within spitting distance of their expectations and once again, the contrast between consistently strong US data and lackluster data elsewhere has weighed on the single currency, albeit not much as it has only declined 0.1%. And overall, the reality is that the G10 space has seen very little movement, with the entire block within 0.3% of yesterday’s closes. At this point, the payroll data will determine the next move, but barring a huge surprise in either direction, it doesn’t feel like much is in store.

Payables hedgers, I continue to believe this is a great opportunity as the dollar’s strength is unlikely to last.

Good luck and good weekend
Adf

A True Blue Pangloss

Right now there’s a group of old men
(Though Europe has proffered a hen)
Who feel it’s their right
To hog the limelight
When talking pounds, dollars or yen

Here’s a thought for the conspiracy theorists amongst you. Do you think that the cabal of central bankers get annoyed when something other than their actions and words are responsible for moving markets? And so yesterday they determined it was Carney’s turn to make comments that would dominate the financial wires. I mean, war in the Middle East is completely out of the central bankers’ control, which means they have to be reactive in the event that market moves start to become uncomfortable (i.e. stock prices fall). When you are the leader of a G10 central bank, a key part of your role is to make sure that traders and investors jump at your every word (or so it seems) so if the investment community is worrying about something like war, the central bankers are just not very relevant. And they HATE that! While, of course, this is somewhat tongue in cheek, it is remarkable how quickly we hear from a major central banker after market activity that has been focused on non-monetary issues.

Mark Carney, the Old Lady’s boss
Explained, like a true blue Pangloss
That under the rules
They’d plenty of tools
To ease two percent at a toss

At any rate, arguably, as the relief rally continues, the biggest news overnight was a speech by BOE Governor Carney indicating that despite the fact that the base rate is currently set at 0.75%, the BOE has the capability, if necessary, to ease policy by an effective 250bps through rate cuts, more QE and forward guidance. Interestingly, if you read the speech, he doesn’t say that is what they are going to do, although two MPC members have voted for a rate cut already, he is merely responding to the critics who claim the central banks have no ammunition left to fight an eventual downturn in economic activity. Cable traders, however, must have heard the following: we are going to ease policy immediately, at least based on the fact that the pound is today’s worst performing currency, having fallen 0.65% as I type, and taking its decline thus far in 2020 to nearly 2.0%.

At the same time, the central bank cabal should be pleased because equity markets around the world are rallying aggressively, mostly on the idea that a war between the US and Iran is not imminent, and tangentially on the idea that the central banks remain adamant that they have plenty of ammunition left to keep easing monetary policy ad infinitum.

And that’s really the story, isn’t it? Markets remain almost completely beholden to central bank activity and central bank comments. As long as the prevailing view is that any decline in equity markets is an aberration and will be addressed immediately, we are going to see global equity markets rise. You cannot really fight that story. However, when it comes to the FX markets, there is slightly more opportunity for diversion amongst countries as each nation is likely to add differing amounts of stimulus, thus the relative value of one currency vs. another can react to those differences.

After all, looking at the UK, for example, the combination of the imminent Brexit deal and reduction in policy uncertainty as well as Carney’s comments that the BOE has plenty of room to ease has been more than sufficient to support the FTSE 100, which is higher by 0.6% this morning. And of course, part and parcel of that movement is the pound’s weakness. In fact, I believe this year is going to be all about relative policy ease, at least in the G10 space, with the Fed on track to ease more than any other nation via their not QE and repo programs. And that is why, as the year progresses, I continue to expect the dollar to decline. But so far this year, that has not been the narrative.

With this in mind, a look at the overnight price action shows that equity markets around the world have looked great (Nikkei +2.3%, Shanghai +0.9%, DAX +1.3%, CAC +0.45%) and haven assets have suffered (JPY -0.3%, -0.9% since Tuesday; gold -0.6%; and Treasuries +5bps since yesterday morning). A diminished chance of war and talk of easier policy have worked wonders for risk appetites. Can all this continue? As long as central banks keep playing the same tune they have for the past decade, there doesn’t seem to be any reason for it to stop.

Meanwhile, the dollar has generally been going gangbusters this year, up against all its G10 counterparts, although having a more mixed performance in the EMG space. In truth, US data so far has generally been beating expectations with yesterday’s ADP print of 202K (with a big revision higher for the previous month) the latest proof of that theory. Obviously, Friday’s payroll report will be carefully watched to see if job growth remains abundant, and perhaps more importantly, to see if wages continue to rise. So for the time being, it seems that the FX market is focused on the economic data, and the US data has generally been the best of the bunch, hence the dollar’s strength.

This morning, the only piece of data is Initial Claims (exp 220K) which during payroll week is generally ignored. This means that the dollar’s ongoing short term strength is likely to continue to manifest itself until we get a bad number, or we hear, more clearly, that the Fed is going to ease. I continue to believe that payables hedgers should be taking advantage of what, I believe, will be short term dollar strength. But there is a long way to go this year.

Good luck
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