The positive news keeps arriving
Explaining the ‘conomy’s thriving
Last Friday’s report
Was of such a sort
That showed growth is clearly reviving
The Nonfarm data on Friday was a generally spectacular report that was released into a near vacuum. All of Europe was closed for the Good Friday holiday as were US equity markets. The Treasury market was open for an abbreviated session and there were some futures markets open, but otherwise, it was extremely quiet. And the thing is, this morning is little different, as Europe remains completely closed and in Asia, only Japan, South Korea and India had market activity. Granted, US markets are fully open today, but as yet, we have not seen much activity.
A quick recap of the report showed Nonfarm Payrolls rose by 916K with revisions higher to the past two months of 156K. The Unemployment Rate fell to 6.0%, its lowest post pandemic print and the Participation Rate continues to edge higher, now at 61.5%, although that remains a far cry from the 64% readings that had existed for the previous decade. Arguably, this is one of the biggest concerns for the economy, the fact that the labor force may have permanently shrunk. This is key because, remember, economic growth is simply the product of population growth and productivity gains. In this case, population growth means the labor force population, so if that segment has shrunk, it bodes ill for the future of the economy. But that is a longer-term issue.
Let’s try to put the employment situation into context regarding the Fed and its perceived reaction functions. It was less than two months ago, February 23 to be exact, when Chairman Powell testified to Congress about the 10 million payroll jobs that had been lost and needed to be recovered before the Fed would consider they have achieved their maximum employment mandate. At that time, expectations were this would not be accomplished before a minimum of two more years which was what helped inform the Fed’s broad belief that ZIRP would be appropriate through the end of 2023. And this was the FOMC consensus view, with only a small minority of members expecting even a single rate hike before that time.
But since then, 1.6 million jobs have been created, a remarkable pace and arguably quite a bit faster than anticipated. The bond market has seen this data, along with the other US economic information and determined that the recovery is moving along far faster than previously expected. This is evident in the fact that the 10-year yield continues to climb. Even in Friday’s abbreviated session, yields rose 5 basis points, and as NY is waking up, they have maintained those gains and appear to be edging higher still. Similarly, the Fed Funds futures market is now pricing in its first full rate hike in December 2022, a full year before the Fed’s verbal guidance would have us believe.
The point here is the tension between the Fed and the markets is growing and the eventual outcome, meaning how the Fed responds, will impact every market significantly. So, not only will the bond market have an opportunity to gyrate, but we will see increased volatility in stocks, commodities and the FX markets. The Fed, however, has made it abundantly clear they are uninterested in inflation readings as they strongly believe not only will any inflation be ‘transitory’, but that if it should appear, they have the tools to thwart it quickly (they don’t). More importantly, they have a very specific view of what constitutes maximum employment. And they have been explicit in their verbal guidance that they will give plenty of warning before they start to alter policy in any way. The problem with this thesis is that economic surprises, by their very nature, tend to happen more quickly than expected.
This combination of facts has created the very real possibility of putting the Fed in a position where they need to choose between acting in a timely fashion or giving all that warning before acting. If they choose door number one, they risk impugning their credibility and weakening their toolkit while door number two leaves them even further behind the curve than normal with negative economic consequences for us all. If you wondered why many pundits have used the metaphor of the Fed painting itself into a corner, this is exactly what they are describing.
For now, though, there is precious little chance the Fed is going to change their stance or commentary until forced to do so, which means that we are going to continue to hear that they believe current policy is appropriate and they will give plenty of warning before any changes. I hope they are right, but I fear they are not.
Markets take less time to discuss this morning as most of them are closed. Of the major equity indices, only the Nikkei (+0.7%) was open last night as Commonwealth countries were closed for Easter Monday while China was closed for Tomb Sweeping Day (the Chinese version of Memorial Day). US futures are pointing higher, which given Friday’s data should be no surprise. So right now, we are looking at gains between 0.4% and 0.7%, with both the Dow and S&P sitting at all-time highs.
Bond markets were similarly closed pretty much everywhere, with the US market now edging higher by 0.4bps as traders sit down at their desks. The current 10-year yield of 1.725% is at its highest level since January 2020, but remember, it remains far below the average seen during the past decade and even further below levels seen prior to that. The point is yields are not constrained on the high side in any real way.
Oil prices (-1.7%) are under pressure this morning after OPEC+ indicated they would be increasing production somewhat thus taking pressure off of supplies. However, given the speed of recovery in the US and China, the two largest consumers of oil, I expect that there is more upside here as well.
As to the dollar, it is a pretty dull session overall. That is mostly because so many financial centers have been closed, so trading volumes and activity has been extremely light. In the G10 space, there is a mix of gainers (GBP +0.25%, AUD +0.2%) and losers (SEK -0.25%, NOK -0.15%) but as can be seen by the limited movement, this is really just a bit of position adjustment. In the EMG bloc, TRY (+0.6%) is the leading gainer after a slightly higher than expected inflation print and more hawkish words from the new central bank governor. Otherwise, these currencies are also trading in a range with limited movement in either direction. We will need to wait until tomorrow to see how other markets react to the US data.
Speaking of data, this week sees a mix of indicators as well as the FOMC Minutes.
|Tuesday||JOLTs Job Openings||6.9M|
|Friday||PPI||0.5% (3.8% Y/Y)|
|-ex food & energy||0.2% (2.7% Y/Y)|
Away from this data, we hear from a handful of Fed speakers, including Chair Powell. Powell, however, will be speaking at the virtual IMF/World Bank meetings being held this week. In fact, that should remind us to all be aware of the tape, as we will be hearing from many global financial policymakers this week, and you never know what may come from that.
In the end, the bond market continues to be the key driver of markets, and the US Treasury market remains the driver of global bond markets. I see no reason for US yields to back off given the consistent data story and the increased price pressures. And that, my friends, means the dollar has further room to rise.
Good luck and stay safe