Infinite Buying

Is infinite buying
Kuroda-san’s new mantra
If so, will it help?

An interesting lesson was learned, for those paying attention, yesterday after a headline hit the tape about the BOJ. The headline, BOJ Considering Unlimited JGB Purchases, had an immediate impact on the yen’s value, driving it lower by 0.7% in minutes. After all, logic dictates that a central bank that will buy all the government debt available will drive rates, no matter where they are, even lower, and that the currency would suffer on the back of the news. But, as is often the case, upon further reflection, the market realized that there was much less here than met the eye, and the yen recouped all those losses by early afternoon. In fact, over the past two sessions, the yen is essentially unchanged overall.

But why, you may ask, would that headline have been misleading. The key is to recognize that the BOJ’s current policy describes their QQE (Qualitative and Quantitative Easing) as targeting ¥80 trillion per year, equivalent in today’s market to approximately $740 billion. But they haven’t come close to achieving that target since 2017, actually only purchasing about ¥15 trillion last year. That’s a pretty big miss, but a year after they created that target, they began Yield-Curve Control (YCC), which states that 10-year JGB’s will be kept at around a 0.0% yield, +/-0.2%. Now, given that the BOJ already owns nearly 50% of all JGB’s outstanding, there is very little actual trading ongoing in the JGB market, so it doesn’t really move very much. The point is, the BOJ doesn’t need to buy many JGB’s to keep yields around 0.0%. However, they have been concerned over the optics of reducing that ¥80 trillion target, as reducing it might seem a signal that the BOJ was tightening policy. But now, in the wake of the Fed’s announcement that they will be executing unlimited QE, the BOJ has the perfect answer. They can get rid of a target that no longer means anything, while seeming to expand their program. At the same time, when pressed, they will point to their successful YCC and claim they are purchasing everything necessary to keep rates low. And in fairness, they will be right.

Next week it’s the central bank three
Who meet and they’ll try to agree
On proper next steps
(Increasing the PEPP?)
And printing cash like it was free

This was merely a prelude to what the next several days are going to hold, anticipation of the next central bank actions as the three major central banks, BOJ, Fed and ECB, all meet next week. At this point, we have already seen all the excitement regarding the BOJ, and as to the Fed, while they may well announce more details on their efforts to get funds flowing to SME’s, they are already at unlimited QE (and they are active, buying $75 billion/day) and so it seems unlikely that there will be anything else new to be learned.

The ECB, however, is the place where all the action is going to be. Remember, Madame Lagarde was a little slow off the mark, when back in March she stated that the ECB’s job was not to worry about spreads in the government bond market. Granted, within two weeks, after the market crushed Italian BTP’s and called into question Italy’s ability to fund its Covid-19 response, she realized that was, in fact, her only role. And so subsequently we got a €750 billion PEPP program that included Greek debt for the first time. But clearly, based on the recent PMI data, as well as things like this morning’s Ifo Expectations Survey (69.4 vs. exp 75.0), more is needed. So, speculation is now rampant that PEPP will be increased by €250 billion, and that the Capital Key will be explicitly scrapped. The latter is important because that is the driver of which nation’s debt they purchase and is based on the relative size of each economy. But the main problem is Italy, and so you can be sure that the ECB is going to wind up with a lot more Italian debt than would be allowed under the old rules.

Turning back to this week, though, we still have a whole day to traverse before the weekend arrives. Overall, markets are beginning to quiet down, with actual volatility a bit softer than we had seen recently. For example, though equity markets in Europe are lower, the declines are between 0.7% (FTSE 100) and 1.1% (Spain’s IBEX), with the CAC and DAX in between. If you recall, we were seeing daily movement on the order of 2%-5% not that long ago. The same was true overnight, with the Nikkei (-0.9%), Hang Seng (-0.6%) and Shanghai (-1.1%) all softer but by less dramatic amounts. As to US futures, while they were negative earlier, they are actually currently higher by about 0.5%, although we have a long way to go before the opening.

Bond markets are uninspiring, with Treasuries basically unchanged. European markets are a bit firmer (yields lower) across the board as investors try to anticipate the mooted increase in PEPP. And JGB’s are yielding -0.026%, right where the BOJ wants them.

The dollar this morning is now ever so slightly softer, with CAD actually the leading gainer up 0.2%, while the rest of the G10 is +/-0.1%. The Ifo data was the only release of note, although we have seen oil prices rebound slightly, currently higher by about 1.0% helping both CAD and NOK. In the EMG bloc, the story is a bit more mixed, although gainers have had a better day than losers. By that I mean, CZK (+1.35%), HUF (+1.1%) and RUB (+1.0%) have seen stronger gains than the worst performers (INR and KRW both -0.5%). As always, there are idiosyncratic drivers, with CZK seeming to benefit from word that lockdowns are about to ease, while HUF is gaining on the imminent beginning of QE purchases by the central bank. As to RUB, the combination of oil’s continuing rally off its worst levels earlier this week, and the Bank of Russia’s 50bp rate cut, to 5.50%, has investors looking for better times ahead. Ironically, that stronger oil seems to be weighing on the rupee, while the won fell as foreign equity selling dominated the market narrative.

Yesterday’s Claims data was pretty much as expected, granted that was 4.4M, still horrific, but the market absorbed the news easily. This morning brings Durable Goods (exp -12.0%, -6.5% ex transport) and then at 10:00 Michigan Sentiment (68.0). Not surprisingly, expectations are for some of the worst readings in history, but the way the market has been behaving, I think the risk is actually for a less negative data print and a sharp risk rally. Eventually, unless there really is a V-shaped recovery, I do see risk being shed, but it doesn’t seem like today is the day to get started.

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe
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