The Fed explained that they all feel
A taper is far from surreal
The goal for inflation
Has reached satiation
While job growth ought soon seal the deal
Heading into the FOMC meeting, the consensus was growing around the idea that the Fed would begin tapering later this year, and the consensus feels gratified this morning. Chairman Powell explained that, if things go as anticipated, tapering “could come as soon as the next meeting.” That meeting is slated for November 2nd and 3rd, and so the market has now built this into their models and pricing. In fact, they were pretty clear that the inflation part of the mandate has already been fulfilled, and they were just waiting on the jobs numbers.
An interesting aspect of the jobs situation, though, is how they have subtly adjusted their goals. Back in December, when they first laid out their test of “substantial further progress”, the employment situation showed that some 10 million jobs had been lost due to Covid-19. Since then, the economy has created 4.7 million jobs, less than half the losses. Certainly, back then, the idea that recovering half the lost jobs would have been considered “substantial further progress” seems unlikely. Expectations were rampant that once vaccinations were widely implemented at least 80% of those jobs would return. Yet here we are with the Fed explaining that recovering only half of the lost jobs is now defined as substantial. I don’t know about you, but that seems a pretty weak definition of substantial.
Now, given Powell’s hyper focus on maximum employment, one might ask why a 50% recovery of lost jobs is sufficient to move the needle on policy. Of course, the only answer is that despite the Fed’s insistence that recent inflation readings are transitory and caused by supply chain bottlenecks and reopening of the economy, the reality is they have begun to realize that prices are rising a lot faster than they thought likely. In addition, they must recognize that both housing price and rent inflation haven’t even been a significant part of the CPI/PCE readings to date and will only drive things higher. in other words, they are clearly beginning to figure out that they are falling much further behind the curve than they had anticipated.
Turning to the other key release from the FOMC, the dot plot, it now appears that an internal consensus is growing that the first rate hike will occur in Q4 2022 with three more hikes in 2023 and an additional three or four in 2024. The thing about this rate trajectory is that it still only takes Fed Funds to 2.00% after three more years. That is not nearly enough to impact the inflationary impulse, which even they acknowledge will still be above their 2.0% target in 2024. In essence, the dot plot is explaining that real interest rates in the US are going to be negative for a very long time. Just how negative, though, remains the $64 trillion question. Given inflation’s trajectory and the current school of thought regarding monetary policy (that lower rates leads to higher growth), I fear that the gap between Fed Funds and inflation is likely to be much larger than the 0.2% they anticipate in 2024. While this will continue to support asset prices, and especially commodity prices, the impact on the dollar will depend on how other central banks respond to growing inflation in their respective economies.
Said China to its Evergrande
Defaulting on bonds is now banned
So, sell your assets
And pay dollar debts
Take seriously this command
CHINA TELLS EVERGRANDE TO AVOID NEAR-TERM DEFAULT ON BONDS
This headline flashed across the screens a short time ago and I could not resist a few words on the subject. It speaks to the arrogance of the Xi administration that they believe commanding Evergrande not to default is sufficient to prevent Evergrande from defaulting. One cannot help but recall the story of King Canute as he commanded the incoming tide to halt, except Canute was using that effort as an example of the limits of power, while Xi is clearly expecting Evergrande to obey him. With Evergrande debt trading around 25₵ on the dollar, and the PBOC continuing in their efforts to wring leverage out of the system, it is a virtual guaranty that Evergrande is going under. I wouldn’t want to be Hui Yan Ka, its Chairman, when he fails to follow a direct order. Recall what happened to the Chairman of China Huarong when that company failed.
Ok, how are markets behaving in the wake of the FOMC meeting? Pretty darn well! Powell successfully explained that at some point they would begin slowing their infusion of liquidity without crashing markets. No tantrum this time. So, US equities rallied after the FOMC meeting with all three indices closing higher by about 1%. Overnight in Asia we saw the Hang Seng (+1.2%) and Shanghai (+0.4%) both rally (Japan was closed for Autumnal Equinox Day), and we have seen strength throughout Europe this morning as well. Gains on the continent (DAX and CAC +0.8%) are more impressive than in the UK (FTSE 100 +0.2%), although every market is higher on the day. US futures are all currently about 0.5% higher, although that is a bit off the earlier session highs. Overall, risk remains in vogue and we still have not had a 5% decline in the S&P in more than 200 trading days.
With risk in the fore, it is no surprise that bond yields are higher, but the reality is that they continue to trade in a pretty tight range. Hence, Treasury yields are higher by 2.4bps this morning, but just back to 1.324%. Essentially, we have been in a 1.20%-1.40%% trading range since July 4th and show no sign of that changing. In Europe, yields have also edged higher, with Bunds (+1.6bps) showing the biggest move while both OATs (+0.9bps) and Gilts (+0.6bps) have moved less aggressively.
Commodity prices are mixed this morning with oil lower (-0.7%) along with copper (-0.25%) although the rest of the base metal complex (Al +0.6%, Sn +0.55%) are firmer along with gold (+0.3%). Not surprisingly given the lack of consistency, agricultural prices are also mixed this morning.
The dollar, however, is clearly under pressure this morning with only JPY failing to gain, while the commodity bloc performs well (CAD +0.8%, NOK +0.6%, SEK +0.5%). EMG currencies are also largely firmer led by ZAR (+0.9%) on the back of gold’s strength and PLN (+0.6%) which was simply reversing some of its recent weakness vs. the euro. On the downside, the only notable decliner is TRY (-1.4%), which tumbled after the central bank cut its base rate by 100 basis points to 18% in a surprise move. In fact, TRY has now reached a record low vs. the dollar and shows no signs of rebounding as long as President Erdogan continues to pressure the central bank to keep rates low amid spiraling inflation. (This could be a harbinger of the US going forward if we aren’t careful!)
It is Flash PMI day and the European and UK data showed weaker than expected output readings though higher than expected price readings. We shall see what happens in the US at 9:45. Prior to that we see Initial Claims (exp 320K) and Continuing Claims (2.6M) and we also see Leading Indicators at 10:00 (0.7%). The BOE left policy on hold, as expected, but did raise their forecast for peak inflation this year above 4%. However, they are also in the transitory camp, so clearly not overly concerned on the matter.
There are no Fed speakers today although we hear from six of them tomorrow as they continue to try to finetune their message. The dollar pushed up to its recent highs in the immediate aftermath of the FOMC meeting, but as risk was embraced, it fell back off. If the market is convinced that the Fed really will taper, and if they actually do, I expect it to support the dollar, at least in the near term. However, my sense is that slowing economic data will halt any initial progress they make which could well see the dollar decline as long positions are unwound. For today, though, a modest drift higher from current levels seems reasonable.
Good luck and stay safe