The New Weasel Word

The bulk of the FOMC
Explained their preferred policy
More government spending,
Perhaps never ending,
Is what almost all want to see

Meanwhile, ‘cross the pond, what we heard
Is ‘bove 2% is preferred
They’ll soon change their stance
To give growth a chance
Inflation’s the new weasel word

Another day, another central bank explanation that higher inflation is just what the doctor ordered to improve the economy.  This time, Banque de France’s Governor, Francois Villeroy de Galhau, explained that the current formulation used by the ECB, “below, but close to, 2%”, is misunderstood.  Rather than 2% being a ceiling, what they have meant all along is that it is a symmetrical target.  Uh huh!  I’ve been around long enough to remember that back in 1988, when the ECB was first being considered, Germany was adamant that they would not accept a central bank that would allow inflation, and so forced the ECB to look just like the Bundesbank.  That meant closely monitoring price pressures and preventing them from ever getting out of hand.  Hence, the ECB remit, was absolutely designed as a ceiling, with the Germans reluctant to even allow 2% inflation.  Of course, for most of the rest of Europe, inflation was the saving grace for their economies.  Higher inflation begat weaker currencies which allowed France, Italy, Spain, et.al. to continue to compete with a German economy that became ever more efficient.

But twenty-some years into the experiment of the single currency, and despite the fact that the German economy remains the largest and most important in the Eurozone, the inflationistas of Southern Europe are gaining the upper hand.  These comments by Villeroy are just the latest sign that the ECB is going to abandon its price stability rules, although you can be sure that they will never say that.  Of course, the problem the ECB has is similar to that of Japan and the US, goosing measured inflation has been beyond their capabilities for the past decade (more than two decades for the BOJ), so simply changing their target hardly seems like it will be sufficient to do the job.  My fear, and that of all of Germany, is that one day they will be successful in achieving this new goal and will not be able to stop inflation at their preferred level, but instead will see it rise much higher.  But that is not today’s problem.  Just be aware that we are likely to begin hearing many other ECB members start discussing how inflation running hot for a while is a good thing.  Arguably, the only exceptions to this will be the Bundesbank and Dutch central bank.

And once again, I will remind you all that there is literally no chance that the ECB will sit back and watch, rather than act, if the Fed actually succeeds in raising inflation and weakening the dollar.

Speaking of the Fed, this week has seen a significant amount of Fedspeak already, with Chairman Powell on the stand in Congress for the past three days.  What he, and virtually every other Fed speaker explained, was that more fiscal stimulus was required if the government wanted to help boost growth.  The Fed has done all they can, and to listen to Powell, they have been extremely effective, but the next step was Congress’s to take.  The exception to this thought process came from St Louis Fed President Bullard, who explained that based on his forecasts, the worst is behind us and no further fiscal stimulus is needed.  What makes this so surprising is that he has been one of the most dovish of all Fed members, while this is a distinctly hawkish sentiment.  But he is the outlier and will not affect the ultimate outcome at this stage.

Powell was on the stand next to Treasury Secretary Mnuchin, who made the comment with the biggest impact on markets.  He mentioned that he and House Speaker Pelosi were back to negotiating on a new stimulus package, which the equity market took as a sign a deal would be reached quickly.  We shall see.  Clearly, there is a great deal of angst in Congress right now, so the ability to agree on anything across the aisle is highly questionable.

With that in mind, a look at markets shows what had been a mixed opening is turning into a more negative session.  Overnight saw Asian equity markets with minimal gains and losses (Nikkei +0.5%, Hang Seng -0.3%, Shanghai -0.2%), but Europe, which had been behaving in a similar manner early in the session has turned sharply lower.  At this time, the DAX (-1.95%) and CAC (-2.0%) are leading the way lower, with the FTSE 100 (-0.8%) having a relatively better day.  At the same time, US futures turned from flat to lower, with all three indices now pointing to -0.6% losses at the open.

It is difficult to point to a specific comment or piece of news driving this new sentiment, but it appears that the bond market is in the same camp as stocks.  Treasury yields, while they remain in a narrow range, have slipped 1bp, to 0.65%, and we are seeing Bunds (-2bps) and Gilts (-3bps) also garner demand as havens are in play.  Apparently, central bank desire for inflation is not seen as a serious situation quite yet.

Commodity prices have turned around as well, with oil falling 2% from morning highs, and gold dropping 1%.  In other words, this is a uniform risk reduction, although I would suspect that gold prices should lag the decline elsewhere.

As to the dollar, it is starting to pick up a more substantial bid with EUR (-0.3%) and GBP (-0.35%) sliding from earlier levels.  NOK (-1.15%) remains the worst performer in the G10, which given the decline in oil prices and evolving risk sentiment should be no surprise.  But at this point in the day, the entire bloc is weaker vs. the buck.  EMG currencies, too, have completely reversed some modest early morning strength, and, once again, ZAR (-1.2%) and MXN (-1.0%) lead the way lower.  One must be impressed with the increased volatility in those currencies, as they start to approach levels seen in the initial stages of the Covid crisis.  For anyone who thought that the dollar had lost its haven status, recent price action should put paid to that notion.

On the data front, today brings Durable Goods (exp 1.4%, 1.0% ex Transport) and we hear from two more Fed speakers, Williams and Esther George.  While Williams is almost certain to repeat Powell’s current mantra of more fiscal support, Ms George is one of the more hawkish Fed members and could well sound more like James Bullard than Jay Powell.  We shall see.

This has been a risk-off week, with equity markets down across the board and the dollar higher vs. every major currency in the world.  It seems highly unlikely that the Durable Goods number will change that broader sentiment, and so the ongoing equity market correction, as well as USD rebound seems likely to continue into the weekend.  Remember, short USD positions are still the rule, so there is plenty of ammunition for a further short covering.

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe
Adf

Prices Keep Falling

Suga-san’s ascent
Has not altered the landscape
Prices keep falling

The distance between stated economic goals and actual economic outcomes remains wide as the economic impact of the many pandemic inspired government ordered lockdowns continues to be felt around the world.  The latest example comes from Japan, where August’s CPI readings fell, as expected, to 0.2% Y/Y at the headline level while the ex-fresh food measure (the one the BOJ prefers) fell to -0.4%.  Although pundits in the US have become fond of ridiculing the Fed’s efforts at raising inflation to 2.0%, especially given their inability to do so since defining that level as stable prices in 2012, to see real ineptitude, one must turn east and look at the BOJ’s track record on inflation.  In the land of the rising sun, the favored measure of CPI ex-fresh food has averaged 0.5% for the last 35 years!  The point is the Fed is not the first, nor only, central bank to fail in its mission to generate inflation via monetary policy.

(As an aside, it is an entirely different argument to discuss the merits of seeking to drive inflation higher to begin with, as there is a strong case to be made that limited inflation is a necessary condition for economic success at the national level.)  But 2.0% inflation has become the global central banking mantra. And though the favored inflation measure across nations often differs, the one key similarity is that every G10 nation, as well as many in the emerging markets, has been unable to achieve their goal.  The few exceptions are those nations like Venezuela, Argentina and Turkey that have the opposite problem, soaring inflation and no ability to control that.

But back to Japan, where decades of futility on the inflation front have put paid to the idea that printing money is all that is needed to generate rising prices.  The missing ingredient for all central banks is that they need to pump money into places that result in lending and spending, not simply asset purchases, or those excess funds will simply sit on bank balance sheets with no impact.

Remember, GDP growth, in the long run, comes from a combination of population growth and productivity growth.  Japan has the misfortune, in this case, of being one of the few nations on earth where the population is actually shrinking.  It is also the oldest nation, meaning the average and median age is higher there than any other country on earth (except Monaco which really doesn’t matter in this context).  The point here is that as people age, they tend to consume less stuff, spending less money and therefore driving less growth in the economy.  It is these two factors that will prevent Japan from achieving a much higher rate of inflation until such time as the country’s demographics change.  A new Prime Minister will not solve this problem, regardless of what policies he supports and implements.

Keeping this in mind, the idea that Japan is far more likely to cope with ongoing deflation rather than rising inflation, if we turn our attention to how that impacts the Japanese yen, we quickly realize that the currency is likely to appreciate over time.  Dusting off your Finance 101 textbooks, you will see that inflation has the side effect of weakening a nation’s currency, which quickly feeds into driving further inflation.  Adding to this impact is if the nation runs a current account deficit, which is generally the case when inflation is high and rising.  Harking back to Argentina and Venezuela, this is exactly the behavior we see in those economies.  The flip side of that, though, is that deflation should lead to a nation’s currency appreciating.  This is especially so when that nation runs a current account surplus.  And of course, you cannot find a nation that fits that bill better than Japan (well maybe Switzerland).  The upshot of this is, further JPY appreciation seems to be an extremely likely outcome.  Therefore, as long as prices cease to rise in Japan, there will be upward pressure on the currency.  We have seen this for years, and there is no reason for it to stop now.

Of course, as I always remind everyone, FX is a relative game, so it matters a great deal what is happening in both nations on a relative basis.  And in this case, when comparing the US, where prices are rising and the current account has been in deficit for the past two decades, and Japan, where prices are falling and the current account has been in surplus for the past four decades, the outcome seems clear.  However, the market is already aware of that situation and so the current level of USDJPY reflects that information.  However, as we look ahead, either negative surprises in Japanese prices or positive surprises in the US are going to be important drivers in the FX market.  This is likely to be seen in interest rate spreads, which have narrowed significantly since March when the Fed cut rates aggressively but have stabilized lately.  If the Fed is, in fact, going to put forth the easiest monetary policy around, then a further narrowing of this spread is quite possible, if not likely, and further JPY appreciation will ultimately be the result.  This is what we have seen broadly since the middle of 2015, a steady trend lower in USDJPY, and there is no reason to believe that is going to change.

Whew!  That turned out to be more involved than I expected at the start.  So let me quickly survey the situation today.  Risk is under modest pressure generally, although there were several equity markets that put in a good performance overnight.  After a weak US session, Asia saw modest gains in most places (Nikkei +0.2%, Hang Seng +0.5%) although Shanghai (+2.1%) was quite strong.  European markets are far less convinced of the positives with the DAX (+0.4%) and CAC (-0.1%) not showing much movement, and some of the fringe markets (Spain -1.3%) having a bit more difficulty.  US futures are mixed, although the top performer is the NASDAQ (+0.4%).

Bond markets continue to trade in a tight range, as central bank purchases offset ongoing issuance by governments, and we are going to need some new news or policies to change this story.  Something like an increase in the ECB’s PEPP program, or the BOE increasing its purchases will be necessary to change this, as the Fed is already purchasing a huge amount of paper each month.

And finally, the rest of the FX market shows that the dollar is broadly, but not universally under pressure.  G10 activity shows that NZD (+0.4%) is the leader, although JPY (+0.3%) is having another good day, while NOK (-0.25%) is the laggard.  But as can be seen by the modest movements, and given the fact it is Friday, this is likely position adjustments rather than data driven.

In the EMG space, KRW (+1.2%) was the biggest gainer overnight, which was hard to explain based on outside influences.  The KOSPI rose 0.25%, hardly a huge rally, and interest rates were unchanged.  The best estimate here is that ongoing strength in China is seen as a distinct positive for the won, as South Korea remains highly dependent on the mainland for economic activity.  Beyond the won, though, while there were more gainers than losers, the size of movement was not that significant.

On the data front, speaking of the current account, we see the Q2 reading this morning (exp -$160.0B), as well as Leading Indicators (1.3%) and Michigan Sentiment (75.0).  We also hear from three Fed speakers (Bullard, Bostic and Kashkari) but having just heard from Powell on Wednesday, it seems unlikely they will give us any new information. Rather, today appears to be a consolidation day, with marginal movements as weak positions get unwound into the weekend.

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe
Adf

Nations Regress

When two weeks ago I last wrote
The narrative was to promote
A dollar decline
Which did intertwine
With hatred for Trump ere the vote

But since then the dollar’s rebounded
While experts galore are confounded
Poor Europe’s a mess
While nations regress
On Covid, where hope had been founded

I told you so?  Before my mandatory leave began, the market narrative was that the dollar was not merely falling, but “collapsing” as everything about the US was deemed negative.  The background story continued to be about US politics and how global investors were steadily exiting the US, ostensibly because of the current administration.  Adding to that was Chairman Powell’s speech at the virtual Jackson Hole symposium outlining average inflation targeting, which implied that the Fed was not going to respond to incipient inflation by raising rates until measured inflation was significantly higher and remained there sufficiently long to offset the past decade’s period of undershooting inflation.  In other words, if (when) inflation rises, US interest rates will remain pegged to the floor, thus offering no support for the dollar.  While there were a few voices in the wilderness arguing the point, this outcome seemed assured.

And the dollar did decline with the euro finally breeching the 1.20 level, ever so briefly, back on September 1st.  But as I argued before leaving, there was no way the ECB was going to sit by idly and watch the euro continue to rally without a policy response.  ECB Chief economist Philip Lane was the first to start verbal intervention, which was sufficient to take the wind out of the euro’s sails right after it touched 1.20.  Since then, the ECB meeting last week was noteworthy for not discussing the euro at all, with market participants, once again, quickly accepting that the ECB would allow the single currency to rally further.  But this weekend saw the second volley of verbal intervention, this time by Madame Lagarde, VP Guindos, Ollie Rehn and Mr Lane, yet again.  Expect this pattern to be repeated regularly, every euro rally will be met with more verbal intervention.

Of course, over time, verbal intervention will not be enough to do the job, which implies that at some point in the future, we will see a more intensive effort by the ECB to help pump up inflation.  In order of appearance look for a significant increase in QE via the PEPP program, stronger forward guidance regarding the timing of any incipient rate hikes (never!), a further cut to interest rates and finally, actual intervention.  In the end, there is absolutely no way that the ECB is going to allow the euro to rally very much further than it already has.  After all, CPI in the Eurozone is sitting at -0.2% (core +0.4%), so far below target that they must do more.  And a stronger euro is not going to help the cause.

Speaking of inflation, I think it is worth mentioning the US situation, where for the second straight month, CPI data was much higher than expected.  While many analysts are convinced that the Fed’s rampant asset purchases and expansion of the money supply are unlikely to drive inflation going forward, I beg to differ.  The lesson we learned from the GFC and the Fed’s first gargantuan expansion of money supply and their balance sheet was that if all that money sits in excess reserves on commercial bank balance sheets, velocity of money declines and inflation is absent.  This time, however, the new funds are not simply sitting on the banks’ collective balance sheets but are rather being spent by the recipients of Federal government largesse.  This is driving velocity higher, and with it, inflation.  Now, whatever one may think of Chairman Powell and his Fed brethren, they are not stupid.  The Jackson Hole speech, I believe, served two purposes.  First, it was to help investors understand the Fed’s reaction function going forward, i.e. higher inflation does not mean higher interest rates.  But second, and something that has seen a lot less press, is that the Fed has just moved the goalposts ahead of what they see as a rising tide of inflation.  Now, if (when) inflation runs hot over the next 12-24 months, the Fed will have already explained that they do not need to respond as the average inflation rate has not yet achieved 2.0%.  It is this outcome that will eventually undermine the dollar’s value, higher inflation with no monetary response, but we are still many months away from that outcome.

Turning to today’s activity, after two weeks of broad dollar strength, as well as some equity market pyrotechnics, we are seeing a bit of a dollar sell-off today.  It would be hard to characterize the markets as risk-on given the fact that European bourses are essentially flat on the day (DAX -0.1%, CAC +0.1%) while Asian equity markets showed only modest strength at best (Nikkei, Hang Seng and Shanghai all +0.6%).  Yes, US futures are pointing higher by 1.0%, but that seems more to do with the two large M&A deals announced than anything else.

In the meantime, bond markets have shown no indication of risk being on, with 10-year Treasury yields essentially unchanged since Friday at 0.67%, and effectively unchanged since I last wrote on August 28!  The same is largely true across European government bond markets, with, if anything, a bias for risk-off as most of those have seen yields slide one to two basis points.

And finally, the dollar’s specifics show GBP (+0.6%) to be the top G10 performer, which given its recent performance, down more than 4% since I last wrote, seems to be a bit of a breather rather than anything positive per se.  In the UK, today sees the beginning of the Parliamentary debate regarding PM Johnson’s proposed rewrite of aspects of Brexit legislation, which many think, if passed, will insure a hard Brexit.  As to the rest of the bloc, gains are mostly in the 0.25% range, with the most common theme the uptick in economists’ collective forecasts for economic prospects compared with last month.

Interestingly, in the EMG bloc, movement is less pronounced, with MXN (+0.4%) the biggest gainer, while RUB (-0.4%) is the laggard.  Clearly, as both are oil related, oil is not the driver.  However, when EMG currencies move less than 0.5%, it is hard to get too excited overall.

On the data front this week, the big story is, of course, the FOMC meeting on Wednesday, but we have a bunch of things to absorb.

Tuesday Empire Manufacturing 6.0
IP 1.0%
Capacity Utilization 71.4%
Wednesday Retail Sales 1.0%
-ex autos 1.0%
Business Inventories 0.2%
FOMC Rate Decision 0.00%-0.25%
Thursday Initial Claims 850K
Continuing Claims 13.0M
Housing Starts 1480K
Building Permits 1520K
Friday Leading Indicators 1.3%
Michigan Sentiment 75.0

Source: Bloomberg

What we have seen lately is the lagging indicators showing that the bounce after the reopening of the economy was stronger than expected, but there is growing concern that it may not be sustainable.  At the same time, the only thing interesting about the FOMC meeting will be the new forecasts as well as the dot plot.  After all, Jay just told us what they are going to do for the foreseeable future (nothing) two weeks ago.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

The Chairman Regales

Tomorrow the Chairman regales
Us all with the latest details
Of ways that the Fed,
When looking ahead,
Might ever consider bond sales

The one thing of which we are sure
Is ZIRP, for some years, will endure
The worry is Jay
Has nothing to say
On what he’ll do when there’s a cure

Markets have been biding their time overnight and seem likely to do so for the rest of today’s session as investors and traders await the wisdom of Chairman Powell.  Tomorrow morning’s speech is expected to define the basics of the new Fed operating framework.  In other words, it will describe their latest views on how to achieve their Congressional mandate of achieving “…maximum employment, stable prices and moderate long-term interest rates.”

It was in 2012 when the FOMC decided that 2.0% inflation was the definition of stable prices and formalized that number as their target. (Interestingly, the history of the 2.0% inflation target starts back in New Zealand in the late 1980’s, when inflation there was consistently between 15%-20%.  Donald Brash was appointed RBNZ governor and in one of his first actions decided that 2.0% inflation represented a good compromise between rampant inflation and price stability.  There was neither academic literature nor empirical data that supported this view, it was simply his feeling.  But it has since become the watchword in central banking with respect to price stability.  Remember, at 2.0% annual inflation, the real value of things halves every 20 years. Many argue that does not define price stability.)  Fortunately for us all, the Fed has been largely unable to reach their target, with measured inflation averaging 1.6% since then.  Of course, there are issues with the way inflation is measured as well, especially the Fed’s preferred gauge of Core PCE.

But regardless of any issues with the measurement of inflation, that process is not due for adjustment.  Rather, this is all about how the Fed is going to approach the problem of achieving something they have not been able to do consistently since they began the process.

The consensus view is that the Fed is now going to target the average inflation rate over time, although over what time period seems to be left unsaid.  The rationale seems to be that with the Philips Curve relationship now assumed dead (the Phillips curve is the model that explains as unemployment falls, inflation rises), and given the current dire economic situation with unemployment in double digits, the Fed wants to assure everyone that they are not going to do anything to prevent an economic recovery from not only taking off, but extending well into the future.  Thus, the idea is that even when the recovery starts to pick up steam, and presumably inflation rises alongside that recovery, the Fed will happily allow higher prices in order to help to continue to drive unemployment lower.  In other words, the famous dictum of ‘removing the punch bowl just as the party gets started’ is to be assigned to the trash heap of history.

The reason this matters to us all is that future path of inflation, and just as importantly expectations about that path, are what drive interest rates in the market, especially at the long end of the curve.  While the Fed can exert significant control over interest rates out to 2 years, and arguably out to 5 years, once you get past that, it becomes far more difficult for them to do so.  And given the fact that ZIRP and NIRP reign supreme throughout G10 economies, the long end of the curve is the only place where any yield is available.

The problem for investors is that with 30-year Treasuries yielding 1.4%, if the Fed is successful at getting inflation back above 2.0%, the real return on those bonds will be negative, and significantly so.  The alternative, of course, is for investors to sell their current holdings of those bonds, driving down prices and correspondingly raising yields to levels that are assumed to take into account the mooted higher rate of inflation.  The problem there is that the US government, who has been issuing bonds at record rates to fund the spending for Covid programs as well as to make up for lost tax revenue from the economic slowdown, will have to pay a lot more for their money.  That, too, is something that the Fed will want to prevent.  In other words, there are no really good solutions here.

However, what we have begun to see in markets is that investors are expressing concern over a rise in inflation, and so Treasury yields, as well as bond yields elsewhere, are beginning to rise.  Now, nobody would ever call 0.7% on the 10-year a high yield, but that is 0.2% higher than where it was just three weeks ago.  The same is true in the 30-year space, with similar moves seen throughout the rest of the G10 bond markets.  While deflation concerns remain the primary focus of central bankers everywhere, bond markets are beginning to look the other way.  And that, my friends, will be felt in every market around the world; equities, commodities and FX.

So, a quick look at markets this morning shows us that equities in Asia had a mixed to weaker session (Nikkei +0.0%, Hang Seng +0.0%, Shanghai -1.3%) while European bourses are mostly very modestly higher (DAX +0.5%, CAC +0.3%, FTSE 100 -0.2%).  US futures are mixed as well, although NASDAQ (+0.5%) futures continue to power ahead, the Dow and S&P are essentially unchanged.

Bond markets continue to slowly sell off as they are seeming to price in the idea that if the Fed is willing to accept higher inflation going forward, so will every other central bank.  Thus, another 3bp rise this morning in 10-year Treasuries, Bunds and Gilts has been seen.  Meanwhile, as interest rates go higher, gold is losing some of its luster, having fallen another 0.6% today which takes it nearly 8% below its recent historic peak.

And finally, the dollar is having what can only be described as a mixed session.  Versus the G10, it has gained slightly against the Euro, Danish krone and Swiss franc, and edged lower vs NZD.  Those movements are on the order of just 0.2%-0.3%, with the rest of the bloc +/- 0.1% and offering no information.  Emerging market currencies have seen similar price action, albeit with a bit more oomph, as HUF (-0.8%) and CZK (-0.6%) demonstrate their higher beta characteristics compared to the euro, while ZAR (+0.5%) continues to find buyers for their still highest yielding debt available.

As I said at the top, markets appear to be biding their time for the Chairman’s speech tomorrow morning at 9:15 NY time.  On the data front, this morning only brings Durable Goods (exp 4.8%, 2.0% ex Transport), which while generally important, will unlikely be enough to shake up the trading or investment community.  For now, the dollar’s medium-term trend lower has been halted.  Its future direction will depend largely on Mr Powell and what he has to tell us tomorrow.  Until then, don’t look for very much movement at all.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Gone Undetected

When Covid, last winter, emerged
Most government bond prices surged
As havens were sought
And most people thought
That price pressures would be submerged

But since then, with six months now passed
Economists all are aghast
Deflation expected
Has gone undetected
As price levels beat their forecasts

You may recall that when the coronavirus first came to our collective attention at the end of January, it forced China to basically shut down its economy for three weeks. At that time, expectations were for major supply chain disruptions, but concerns over the spread of the virus were not significant. Economists plugged that information into their models and forecast price rises due to supply constraints. Of course, over the next two months as Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout the rest of the world and resulted in lockdowns of economic activity across numerous countries, the demand destruction was obvious. Economists took this new information, plugged it into their models and declared that the deflationary pressures would be greater than the supply chain disruptions thus resulting in deflation, and more ominously, could result in a deflationary spiral like the one the US suffered during the Great Depression.

Central banks didn’t need their arms twisted to respond to that message, especially since the big three central banks, the Fed, ECB and BOJ, had all been struggling to raise inflation to their respective targets for nearly ten years. Thus began the greatest expansion of monetary stimulus in history. Throughout this period, central bankers pooh-poohed the idea that inflation would emerge by pointing to the financial crisis of 2008-9, when they implemented the previously greatest expansion in monetary policy, flooding economies with money, yet no inflation was recorded. At least, price inflation in goods and services, as measured by governments, remained subdued throughout the period.

But there is a very big difference between the current economic situation and the state of things back in 2009. During the financial crisis, banks were the epicenter of the problem, and printing money and injecting it into banks was all that was needed to prevent a further collapse in the economy. In fact, fiscal policy was relatively tight, so all that money basically sat on bank balance sheets as excess reserves at the Fed. There was no increase in buying pressure and thus no measured inflation. In fact, the only thing that inflated was financial asset prices, as the central bank response led to a decade long boom in both stock and bond prices.

In 2020 however, Covid-19 has inspired not just central bank action, but massive fiscal stimulus as well. At this point, over $10 trillion of fiscal stimulus has been implemented worldwide, with the bulk of it designed to get money into the hands of those people who have lost their jobs due to the economic shutdowns worldwide. In other words, this money has entered the real economy, not simply gone into the investment community. When combining that remarkable artificial increase in demand with the ongoing supply chain breakages, it is not hard to understand that price pressures are going to rise. And so they have, despite all the forecasts for deflation.

Just this morning, the UK reported CPI rose 1.0% Y/Y in July, 0.4% more than expected. Core CPI there rose 1.8% Y/Y, 0.6% more than expected. This outcome sounds remarkably like the US data from last week and shows this phenomenon is not merely a US situation. The UK has implemented significant fiscal stimulus as well as monetary support from the BOE. The UK has also seen its supply chains severely interrupted by the virus. The point is, prices seem far more likely to rise during this crisis than during the last one. We are just beginning to see the evidence of that. And as my good friend, @inflation_guy (Mike Ashton) explains, generating inflation is not that hard. Generating just a little inflation is going to be the problem. Ask yourself this, if the economy is still dragging and inflation starts to rise more rapidly than desired, do you really think any central bank is going to raise rates? I didn’t think so. Be prepared for more inflation than is currently forecast.

With that in mind, let us consider what is happening in markets today. Once again the picture is mixed, at least in Asia, as today the Nikkei (+0.25%) found a little support while the Hang Seng (-0.75%) and Shanghai (-1.25%) came under pressure. European exchanges are showing very modest gains (DAX +0.25%, CAC +0.1%) and US futures are all barely in the green. This is not a market that is excited about anything. Instead, investors appear to be on the sidelines with no strong risk view evident.

Turning to bond markets, we continue to see Treasury yields, and all European bond yields as well, slide this morning, with the 10-year Treasury yield down 2 basis points and similar declines throughout Europe. Commodity markets are showing some weakness, with both oil (WTI -0.9%) and gold (-0.6%) softer this morning. Add it all up and it feels like a bit of risk aversion rather than increased risk appetite.

And what of the dollar? Despite what has the feeling of some risk aversion, the dollar is slightly softer on the day, with most currencies showing some strength. In the G10 space, NZD is the outlier, rising 0.7% on the back of a massive short squeeze in the kiwi. But away from that, the movement has been far more muted, and, in fact, the pound is softer by 0.2% as traders are beginning to ask if Brexit may ultimately be a problem. In addition, while the UK inflation data was much higher than expected, there is certainly no indication at this time that the BOE is going to reverse course anytime soon. I have to say that the pound above 1.32 does seem a bit overextended.

EMG currencies are a more mixed picture with RUB (-0.3%) responding to oil’s modest decline, while ZAR has pushed higher by 0.6% on the back of strong foreign inflows for today’s local bond auctions. In what appears to be a benign environment, the hunt for yield is fierce and South Africa with its nominal yields above 9% in the 10-year and inflation running well below 3% is certainly attractive. But otherwise, movement has been uninteresting with most currencies edging higher vs. the dollar this morning.

On the data front today, the only US release is the FOMC Minutes from the July meeting where analysts will be searching for clues as to the Fed’s preferred next steps. More specific forward guidance tied to economic indicators seems to be in the cards, with the key question, which indicators?

Add it all up and we have another slow summer day where the dollar drifts lower. Arguably, the biggest unknown right now would be an agreement on the next US fiscal stimulus package, which if announced would likely result in a weaker dollar. However, I am not willing to forecast the timing of that occurring.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Their Siren Song

The trend ‘gainst the dollar is strong
With bears playing their siren song
As long as real rates
Are in dire straits
‘Twould be a mistake to go long

While there is usually some interesting tidbit on which to focus regarding market behavior that is not specifically FX related, this morning that does not seem to be the case. In fact, today’s most noteworthy story is that the dollar continues to drive lower vs. almost all its counterparts. As there was no specific news or data that appears to be driving other currencies higher, I can only attribute this broad resumption of the dollar downtrend to the fact that real interest rates in the US have turned back lower.

Looking back a few weeks, 10-year US real interest rates (nominal – CPI) bottomed at -1.08% on August 6th. That coincided with the peak price in gold, as well as the euro’s local high. But then Treasury yields began to back up as the bond market started getting indigestion from the Treasury issuance schedule ($316 billion total since then, of which $112 billion were Notes and Bonds.) The problem is that not merely is the size of the issuance unprecedented, but that it shows no signs of slowing down as the government continues to run massive deficits.

At any rate, real yields backed up by 14 basis points in the ensuing week, which resulted in both a sharp correction in the price of gold, and support for the dollar. But it seems that phase of the market may be behind us as Treasury yields have been sliding on both a nominal and real basis, and we have seen gold (and silver) recoup those losses while the dollar has ceded its gains and then some.

At this point, the question becomes, what is driving real yields? Is it fears of rising inflation? Is it hope that the Fed will maintain ultra-easy monetary policy even if the economy recovers strongly? Or is it something else?

Regarding the pace of inflation, while last week’s CPI data was certainly a shock to most eyes, it doesn’t seem as though it is the driver. I only point this out because the nadir in real yields occurred a week before the CPI data was released. Now it is certainly possible that bond investors were anticipating a higher inflation print, but there was absolutely no indication it would be as high as it turned out to be. In fact, based on the CPI release, I would have anticipated real yields to fall further, as the combination of higher inflation and a Fed that is essentially ignoring inflation at the current time is a recipe for further declines there. Remember, everything we have heard from the Fed is that not merely are they unconcerned with inflation, but that they welcome it and are comfortable allowing it to run hotter than their target for a time going forward.

This latter commentary implies that there is not going to be any change in the Fed’s policy stance in the near future either. Rather, Chairman Powell has made it clear that the Fed is going to provide ongoing support and liquidity to the markets economy for as long as they deem it necessary. Oh, and by the way, they have plenty of tools left with which to do so.

If these are not viable explanations for the change in trend, one other possible driver is the vagaries of the ongoing pandemic. Perhaps there is a relationship between increases in infection rates and investor assessments of the future. Logically, that would not be far-fetched, and there is growing evidence that there is a correlation between market behavior and covid news. Specifically, when it appears that covid is in retreat, bond yields tend to rise, and so real rates have been moving in lockstep. As well, when the news indicates that the virus is resurgent, the yield complex tends to head lower. Thus, in a convoluted way, perhaps the dollar bearishness that has become so pervasive is being driven by the idea that the US continues to suffer the most from Covid-19, and as long as that remains the case, this trend will remain intact.

Now, I would not want to base all my trading and hedging decisions on this idea, but it is certainly worth keeping in mind when looking at short-term risk exposures and potential timing to manage them.

But as I said at the top, overall, there is very little of note in the financial press and not surprisingly, market activity has been fairly muted. For example, equity markets in Asia basically finished either side of unchanged on the day (Nikkei -0.2%, Hang Seng +0.1%, Shanghai +0.3%). Europe, which had been largely unchanged all morning has been on a late run and is now nicely higher (DAX +0.9%, CAC +0.6%) and US futures have also edged up from earlier unchanged levels. As discussed, Treasury yields continue to drift lower (-1.5 basis points) and gold is rocking (+1.0% and back over $2000/oz.)

And the dollar? Well, it is definitely on its back foot this morning, with the entire G10 complex firmer led by GBP (+0.5%) on the strength of optimism over the resumption of Brexit talks and JPY (+0.45%) which seems to be benefitting from the ongoing premium for owning JGB’s and swapping back to USD.

In the EMG bloc, RUB (+0.8%) is the leader today, followed by ZAR (+0.7%) and MXN (+0.65%). All of these are benefitting from firmer commodity prices which, naturally are helped by the dollar’s broad weakness. But other than TRY (-0.2%) which has fallen in nine of the past ten sessions as President Erdogan and the central bank undermine the lira, and IDR (-0.3%), which has also seen a string of suffering, but this based on difficulty dealing with Covid effectively, the rest of the bloc is modestly firmer vs. the greenback.

On the data front, this morning brings Housing Starts (exp 1245K) and Building Permits (1326K), which if wildly different than expectations could have a market impact, although are likely to be ignored by traders. Rather, the trend in the dollar remains lower, with the euro actually setting new highs for the move this morning, and until we see a change in the rate structure, either by US real rates rising, or other real rates falling more aggressively, I expect this trend will continue. Hedgers, choose your spots, but don’t miss out.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Prices Bespeak

It seems that the rate of inflation
Is rising across our great nation
Demand remains weak
But prices bespeak
The need for some new Fed mentation

Does inflation still matter to markets? That is the question at hand given yesterday’s much higher than expected, although still quite low, US CPI readings and various market responses to the data. To recap, CPI rose 0.6% in July taking the annual change to 1.0%. The core rate, ex food & energy, also rose 0.6% in July, which led to an annual gain of 1.6%. For good order’s sake, it is important to understand that those monthly gains were the largest in quite a while. For the headline number, the last 0.6% print was in June 2009. For the core number, the last 0.6% print was in January 1991!

The rationale for inflation’s importance is twofold. First, and foremost, the Fed (and in fact, every central bank) is charged with maintaining stable prices as a key part of their mandate. As such, monetary policy is directly responsive to inflation readings and designed to achieve those targets. Second, economic theory tells us that the value of all assets over time is directly impacted by the change in the price level. This concept is based on the idea that investors and asset holders want to maintain the real value of their savings (and wealth) over time so that when they need to draw on those savings, they can maintain their desired level of consumption in the future.

Of course, the Fed has made a big deal about the fact that inflation remains far too low and one of the stated reasons for ZIRP and QE is to help push the inflation rate back up to their 2.0% target. Remember, too, that target is symmetric, which means that they expect inflation to print higher than their target as well as lower, and word is, come the September meeting, they are going to formalize the idea of achieving an average of 2.0% inflation over time. The implication here is that they are going to be willing to let the inflation rate run above 2.0% in order to make up for the last decade when their preferred measure, core PCE, only touched 2.0% in 11 of the 103 months since they established the target.

Looking at the theory, what we all learned in Economics 101 was that higher inflation led to higher nominal interest rates, higher gold prices and a weaker currency. The equity question was far less clear as there are studies showing equities are a good place to be and others showing just the opposite. A quick look at the market response to yesterday’s CPI data shows that yields behaved as expected, with 10-year Treasuries seeing yields climb 3.5 basis points. Gold, on the other hand, had a more mixed performance, rallying 1.0% in the first hours after the release, but ultimately falling 1.0% on the day. And finally, the dollar also behaved as theory would dictate, falling modestly in the wake of the release, probably about 0.25% on average.

So yesterday, the theory held up quite well, with markets moving in the “proper” direction after the news came out. But a quick look at the longer-term relationship between inflation and markets tells a bit of a different story. The correlation between US CPI and EURUSD has been 0.01% over the past ten years. In the same timeframe, gold’s correlation to CPI has actually been slightly negative, -0.05%, while Treasury yields have shown the only consistent relationship with the proper sign, but still just +0.2%.

What this data highlights are not so much that inflation impacts market prices, but that we should only care about inflation, from a market perspective at least, because the Fed (and other central banks) have made it part of their mantra. Thus, the answer to the question, does inflation still matter is that only insofar as the Fed continues to care about it. And what we have gleaned from the Fed over the past five months, since the onset of the covid pandemic, is that inflation is way down their list of priorities right now. In other words, look for higher inflation readings going forward with virtually no signal from the Fed that they will respond. At least, not until it gets much higher. If you were wondering how we could get back to the 1970’s situation of stagflation, we are clearly setting the table for just such an outcome.

But on to markets today. Risk is under a bit of pressure this morning as equity markets in Asia and Europe were broadly lower, the only exception being the Nikkei (+1.8%) which saw a large tech sector rally drive the entire index higher. Europe, on the other hand, is a sea of red although only the FTSE 100 in London is down appreciably, -1.1%. And at this hour, US futures are essentially flat.

Bond markets are less conclusive today. Treasury yields are lower by 1 basis point at this hour, although that is well off the earlier session price highs, but European government bond markets are actually falling today, with yields edging higher, despite the soft equity market performance. As to gold, it is currently higher by 1.0%, which simply takes it back to the level seen at the time of yesterday’s CPI release.

Turning to the dollar, it is definitely softer as in the G10, only NZD (-0.3%), which seems to be responding to the sudden recurrence of Covid-19 cases in the country, is weaker than the greenback. But NOK (+0.6%) with oil continuing to edge higher, leads the pack, followed closely by the euro and pound, both of which are firmer by 0.5% this morning. Perhaps French Unemployment data, which showed an unemployment rate of just 7.1% instead of the 8.3% forecast, is driving the bullishness. But arguably, we are simply watching the continuation of the dollar’s recent trend lower.

In the emerging markets, the CE4 are all solidly higher as they track the euro’s movement with a bit more beta. But the rest of the space has seen almost no movement with those currency markets that are open showing movement on the order of +/- 10 basis points. In other words, there is no real story here to tell.

On the data front, we get the weekly Initial Claims (exp 1.1M) and Continuing Claims (15.8M) data at 8:30, but that is really all there is. We continue to hear from some Fed speakers, with today bringing Bostic and Brainard, but based on what we have heard from other FOMC members recently, there is nothing new we will learn. Essentially, the Fed continues to proselytize for more fiscal support and blame all the economy’s problems on Covid-19, holding themselves not merely harmless for the current situation, but patting themselves on the back for all they have done.

With this in mind, it is hard to get excited about too much activity today, and perhaps the best bet is the dollar will continue to drift lower for now. While the dollar weakening trend remains intact, it certainly has lost a lot of its momentum.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

 

Risk Off’s Set To Soar

Though April saw rallies galore
In equities, bonds and much more
The first days of May
Seem set to convey
A tale that risk-off’s set to soar

Last week finished on a down note for risk appetite, as we saw equities decline sharply on Friday, at least in those markets that were open, as well as the first cracks in the rebound in currencies vs. the dollar. This morning, those trends are starting to reassert themselves and we look to be heading toward a full-blown risk-off session.

A quick recap reminds us that Thursday, which was month end, saw a modest decline in equities which was easily attributed to portfolio rebalancing. After all, the April rally was impressive in any context, let alone the current situation where huge swathes of the global economy have been shuttered for more than a month. Friday, while a holiday in many markets around the world, saw far more significant equity market declines in countries that were open, with US markets falling between 2.5% and 3.2%. The weekend saw loads of stories highlighting the adage, ‘Sell in May and go away’, as an appropriate strategy this year. This was compounded by the far more bearish take by Warren Buffett regarding the US economy, where he explained that Berkshire Hathaway had exited its positions in airline stocks and instead had grown its cash pile to $138 billion. These are not the signs of confidence that investors crave, and so this morning, European equity markets are all much lower, led by the CAC (-4.0%) and DAX (-3.5%). While both China and Japan were closed for holidays, the Hang Seng had a terrible performance, falling 4.2%, and we saw sharp declines throughout the rest of Emerging Asia. Meanwhile, US futures markets are all lower by about 1% as I type.

I guess the question at hand remains the sustainability of last month’s price action. Right now, there are two key subjects where the underlying narrative is up for grabs; risk appetite and inflation. For the former, there is a large contingent who believe that the worst is over with respect to Covid-19, and its spread is abating. This means that over the course of the next few weeks and months, economies are going to reopen and that the situation will return to normal. There is much talk of a V-shaped recovery on the strength of the extraordinary efforts of central banks and governments around the world. The flip side of this argument is that despite the tentative steps toward reopening economies worldwide, the pace of recovery will be significantly slower than the pace of the decline. Concerns about how much of the economy has been irrevocably destroyed, with small businesses worldwide closing, and unemployment everywhere rising sharply, are rife. While we are still in the first half of Q1 earnings season, the data to date have not been pretty, and remember, the virus only became a significant issue in March, generally. This implies that the bearish view may have more legs, and it is the side I believe fits the fact pattern more accurately.

The inflation narrative is just as fierce, with the hard money advocates all decrying the central bank activity as opening the door to currency collapses and hyperinflation right around the corner. Meanwhile, the other side of the argument looks to the history of the past twenty years, where Japan has been printing yen and effectively monetizing its debt, while still unable to achieve any sort of inflation at all. In this case, I think the deflationistas make the best case for the near term, as the combination of unprecedented demand destruction as well as extraordinary growth in debt both point to slower growth and price declines in the short and medium term. However, that is not to ignore the fact that central banks have gone far outside the boundaries of what had traditionally been viewed as their bailiwick, and especially if we do see a debt jubilee of some type, where government debt owned by a nation’s own central bank is forgiven, then the opportunity for a significant inflationary outcome remains on the table. Just not right away.

Adding it up for today points to a reduced risk appetite as evidenced by those equity markets that are open. Bond markets have not played along as one might have expected, with Treasury yields lower by only 1bp, and Bund yields, along with the rest of Europe’s, actually higher this morning. That price action seems to be a response to concerns over the outcome of the German Constitutional Court’s ruling due tomorrow, regarding the legality of QE, the PEPP and, perhaps more critically, the necessity of the ECB to follow the Capital Key when purchasing bonds.

In the FX markets, the dollar has resumed its role as king of the world, rallying against every currency except the yen, which has essentially stayed flat. In the G10 space, NOK is the leading decliner, down 1.2% as oil prices are back on the schneid with WTI down 6.3% this morning. But we are seeing the pound (-0.8%) and Swedish krone (-0.7%) under significant pressure as well. GBP traders are looking ahead to Thursday’s BOE meeting where expectations are rising for another bout of policy ease, which fits in with the broad risk-off framework. The krone, meanwhile, is suffering as the Riksbank finds itself in a difficult spot regarding its QE program. It seems that despite its claims that it would be purchasing not only government bonds, but corporates as well, that is illegal based on the bank’s guiding legislation, and so there is some monetary policy confusion now undermining the currency.

In the EMG space, IDR (-1.45%) and RUB (-1.3%) have been the weakest performers, with the ruble suffering from both weaker oil prices as well as the recent increase in the pace of infections in Russia. While things there are already under pressure, they could well get worse before they get better. Meanwhile, Indonesia saw a reversal of half of last week’s currency gains as PMI data (27.5) highlighted just how weak the near-term looks for the island nation. While the bulk of the rest of the space has suffered on the back of the overall risk-off sentiment, there has been a later reversal in ZAR, where the rand is now higher by 0.75% after its PMI data surprised one and all by printing at 46.1, well above expectations and a very modest decline compared to March, albeit still in contractionary territory.

On the docket this week, we see a great deal of information culminating in the payroll report on Friday, and that is certain to be frightful.

Today Factory Orders -9.4%
Tuesday Trade Balance -$44.2B
  ISM Non-Manufacturing 37.8
Wednesday ADP Employment -20.5M
Thursday Initial Claims -3.0M
  Continuing Claims -19.6M
  Nonfarm Productivity -5.5%
  Unit Labor Costs 3.8%
  Consumer Credit $15.0B
Friday Nonfarm Payrolls -21.3M
  Private Payrolls -21.7M
  Manufacturing Payrolls -2.25M
  Unemployment Rate 16.0%
  Average Hourly Earnings 0.3% (3.3% Y/Y)
  Average Weekly Hours 33.5
  Participation Rate 61.6%

Source: Bloomberg

The range of expectations for the payroll number highlight the ongoing confusion, with estimates between -840K and -30.0M. Regardless, the number will be a record, of that there is no doubt.

In addition to all this data, we hear from the RBA and the BOE on Thursday, with further ease on the cards, and we get to hear from five different Fed speakers. In these unprecedented times, as policymakers struggle to keep up with the economic destruction, we will soon become inured to shocking data. But that will not make it any better, and I fear that shock or not, risk appetites will continue to diminish as the month, and year, progresses. This means that the dollar is likely to retain its bid for a while yet.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

A Good Place

Said Clarida, “We’re in a good place”
With regard to the policy space
Later Bullard explained
That inflation’s restrained
And a rise above two he’d embrace

“At this point I think it would be a welcome development, even if it pushed inflation above target for a time. I think that would be welcome, so bring it on.” So said St Louis Fed President James Bullard, the uber-dove on the FOMC, yesterday when discussing the current policy mix and how it might impact their inflation goals. Earlier, Vice-chairman Richard Clarida explained that while things currently seem pretty good, the risks remain to the downside and that the Fed would respond appropriately to any unexpected weakness in economic data. Not wanting to be left out, BOE member Silvana Tenreyo, also explained that she could easily be persuaded to vote to cut rates in the UK in the event that the economic data started to slow at all.

My point is that even though the central banking community has not seemed to be quite as aggressive with regard to policy ease lately, the reality is that they are collectively ready to respond instantly to any sign that the current global economic malaise could worsen. And of course, the ECB is still expanding its balance sheet by €20 billion per month while the Fed is growing its own by more than $60 billion per month. Any thought that the central bank community was backing away from interventionist policy needs to be discarded. While they continue to call, en masse, for fiscal stimulus, they are not about to step back and reduce their influence on markets and the economy. You can bet that the next set of rate moves will be lower, pretty much everywhere around the world. The only question is which bank will move first.

This matters because FX is a relative game, where currency movement is often based on the comparison between two nations’ monetary regimes and outlooks, with everyone looking at the same data, and central bank groupthink widespread, every response to a change in the economic outlook will be the same; first cut rates, then buy bonds, and finally promise to never raise rates again! And this is why I continue to forecast the dollar to decline as 2020 progresses, despite its robust early performance, the Fed has more room to cut rates than any other central bank, and that will ultimately undermine the dollar’s relative value.

But that is not the case today, or this week really, where the dollar has been extremely robust even with the tensions in Iran quickly dissipating. I think one of the reasons this has been the case is that the US data keeps beating expectations. As we head into the payroll report later this morning, recall that; the Trade Deficit shrunk, ISM Non-Manufacturing beat expectations, Factory Orders beat expectations, ADP Employment beat expectations and Initial Claims fell more than expected. The point is that no other nation has seen a run of data that has been so positive recently, and there has been an uptick in investment inflows to the US, notably in the stock market, which once again traded to record highs yesterday. While this continues to be the case, the dollar will likely remain well bid. However, ultimately, I expect the ongoing QE process to undermine the greenback.

Speaking of the payroll report, here are the latest median expectations according to Bloomberg:

Nonfarm Payrolls 160K
Private Payrolls 153K
Manufacturing Payrolls 5K
Unemployment Rate 3.5%
Average Hourly Earnings 0.3% (3.1% Y/Y)
Average Weekly Hours 34.4
Canadian Change in Employment 25.0K
Canadian Hourly Wage Rate 4.2%
Canadian Unemployment Rate 5.8%
Canadian Participation Rate 65.6%

With the better than expected ADP report, market participants are leaning toward a higher number than the economists, especially given the overall robustness of the recent data releases. At this point, I would estimate that any number above 180K is likely to see some immediate USD strength, although I would not be surprised to see that ebb as the session progresses amid profit-taking by traders who have been long all week. Ironically, I think that a weak number (<130K) is likely to be a big boost for stocks as expectations of Fed ease rise, although the dollar is unlikely to move much on the outcome.

On the Canadian front, they have been in the midst of a terrible run regarding employment, with last month’s decline of 71.2K the largest in more than a decade. While inflation up north has been slightly above target, if we continue to see weaker economic data there, the BOC is going to be forced to cut rates sooner than currently priced (one cut by end of the year) as there is no way they will be able to resist the pressure to address slowing growth, especially given the global insouciance regarding inflation. While that could see the Loonie suffer initially, I still think the long term trend is for the USD to soften.

As to the rest of the world, the overnight session was not very scintillating. The dollar had a mixed performance overall, rising slightly against most of its G10 brethren, but faring less well against a number of EMG currencies, notably the higher yielders. For example, IDR was the big winner overnight, rising 0.6% to its strongest point since April 2018, after the central bank explained that it would not be intervening to prevent further strength and investors flocked to the Indonesian bond market with its juicy 5+% yield. Similarly, INR was also a winner, rising 0.4% as investors chased yield there as well. You can tell that fears over an escalation of the US-Iran conflict have virtually disappeared as these are two currencies that are likely to significantly underperform in the event things got hot there.

On the downside, Hungary’s forint was today’s weakest performer, falling 0.5% after PM Victor Orban explained that Hungary joining the euro would be “catastrophic”. While I agree with the PM, I think the market response is based on the idea that if the Hungarians were leaning in that direction, the currency would likely rally before joining.

On the G10 front, both French and Italian IP were released within spitting distance of their expectations and once again, the contrast between consistently strong US data and lackluster data elsewhere has weighed on the single currency, albeit not much as it has only declined 0.1%. And overall, the reality is that the G10 space has seen very little movement, with the entire block within 0.3% of yesterday’s closes. At this point, the payroll data will determine the next move, but barring a huge surprise in either direction, it doesn’t feel like much is in store.

Payables hedgers, I continue to believe this is a great opportunity as the dollar’s strength is unlikely to last.

Good luck and good weekend
Adf

Hawks Must Beware

The BOE finally sees
That Brexit may not be a breeze
So hawks must beware
As rates they may pare
For doves, though, this act’s sure to please

Two stories from the UK are driving the narrative forward this morning, at least the narrative about the dollar continuing to strengthen. The first, and most impactful, were comments from BOE member, Michael Saunders, who prior to this morning’s speech was seen as one of the more hawkish members of the MPC. However, he explained that regardless of the Brexit outcome, the continuing slowdown in the UK, may require the BOE to cut rates soon. The UK economy has been under considerable pressure for some time and the data shows no signs of reversing. The market has been pricing in a rate cut for a while, although BOE rhetoric, especially from Governor Carney, worked hard to keep the idea of the next move being a rate hike. But no more. If Saunders is in the cutting camp, you can bet that we will see action at the November meeting, even if there is another Brexit postponement.

And speaking of Brexit postponements, Boris won a court victory in Northern Ireland where a lawsuit had been filed claiming a no-deal Brexit was a breach of the Good Friday accords that brought peace to the country. However, the court ruled it was no such thing, rather it was simply a political act. The upshot is this was seen as a further potential step toward a no-deal outcome, adding to the pound’s woes. In the meantime, Johnson’s government is still at odds with Parliament, and is in the midst of another round of talks with the EU to try to get a deal. It seems the odds of that deal are shrinking, although I continue to believe that the EU will blink. The next five weeks will be extremely interesting.

At any rate, once Saunders’ comments hit the tape, the pound quickly fell 0.5%, although it has since regained a bit of that ground. However, it is now trading below 1.23, its weakest level in two weeks, and as more and more investors and traders reintegrate a hard Brexit into their views, you can look for this decline to continue.

Of course, the other big story is the ongoing impeachment exercise in Congress which has caused further uncertainty in markets. As always, it is extremely difficult to trade a political event, especially one without a specific date attached like a vote. As such, it is difficult to even offer an opinion here. Broadly, in the event President Trump was actually removed from office, I expect the initial move would be risk-off but based on the only other impeachment exercise in recent memory, that of President Clinton in 1998, it took an awful long time to get through the process.

Turning to the data, growth in the Eurozone continues to go missing as evidenced by this morning’s confidence data. Economic Confidence fell to its lowest level in four years while the Business Climate and Industrial Confidence both fell more sharply than expected as well. We continue to see a lack of inflationary impulse in France (CPI 1.1%) and weakness remains the predominant theme. While the euro traded lower earlier in the session, it is actually 0.1% higher as I type. However, remember that the single currency has fallen more than 4.4% since the end of June and nearly 2.0% in the past two weeks alone. With the weekend upon us, it is no surprise that short term positions are being pared.

Overall, the dollar is having a mixed session. The yen and pound are vying for worst G10 performers, but the movement remains fairly muted. It seems the yen is benefitting from today’s risk-on feeling, which was just boosted by news that a cease-fire in Yemen is now backed by the Saudis. It is no surprise that oil is lower on the news, with WTI down 1.1%, and equity market have also embraced the news, extending early gains. On the other side of the coin, the mild risk-on flavor has helped the rest of the bunch.

In the EMG space it is also a mixed picture with ZAR suffering the most, -0.35%, as concerns grow over the government’s plans to increase growth. Meanwhile, overnight we saw strength in both PHP and INR (0.45% each) after the Philippine central bank cut rates and followed with a reserve ratio cut to help support the economy. Meanwhile, in India, as the central bank removes restrictions on foreign bond investment, the rupee has benefitted.

But overall, movement has not been large anywhere. US equity futures are pointing higher as we await this morning’s rash of data including: Personal Income (exp 0.4%); Personal Spending (0.3%); Core PCE (1.8%); Durable Goods (-1.0%, 0.2% ex transport); and Michigan Sentiment (92.1). We also hear from two more Fed speakers, Quarles and Harker. Speaking of Fed speakers (sorry), yesterday vice-Chairman Richard Clarida gave a strong indication that the Fed may change their inflation analysis to an average rate over time. This means that they will be comfortable allowing inflation to run hot for a time to offset any period of lower than targeted inflation. Given that inflation has been lower than targeted essentially since they set the target in 2012, if this becomes official policy, you can expect prices to continue to gain more steadily, and you can rule out higher rates anytime soon. In fact, this is quite dovish overall, and something that would work to change my view on the dollar. Essentially, given the history, it means rates may not go up for years! And that is not currently priced into any market, especially not the FX market.

The mixed picture this morning offers no clues for the rest of the day, but my sense is that the dollar is likely to come under further pressure overall, especially if risk is embraced more fully.

Good luck and good weekend
Adf