Jay Powell’s Story

This weekend the Chinese reported
That PMI growth has been thwarted
This likely implies
They’ll increase the size
Of stimulus, when all is sorted

Meanwhile, as the week doth progress
Investors will need to assess
If Jay Powell’s story
About transitory
Inflation means more joblessness

The conventional five-day work week clearly does not apply to China.  On a regular basis, economic data is released outside of traditional working hours as was the case this past weekend when both sets of PMI data, official and Caixin (targeting small companies), were reported.  And, as it happens, the picture was not very pretty.  In fact, it becomes easier to understand why the PBOC reduced the reserve requirement for banks several weeks ago as growth on the mainland is quite evidently slowing.  The damage can be seen not only in the headline manufacturing numbers (PMI 50.4, Caixin 50.3) but also in the underlying pieces which showed, for example, new export orders fell to 47.7, well below the expansion/contraction line.

While it is one of Xi’s key goals to wean China from the dominance of exports as an economic driver, the reality is that goal has come nowhere near being met.  China remains a mercantilist, export focused economy, where growth is defined by its export sector.  The fact that manufacturing is slowing and export orders shrinking does not bode well for China’s economy in the second half of the year.  To the extent that the delta variant of Covid is responsible for slowing growth elsewhere in the world, apparently, China has not escaped the impact as they claim.

However, in today’s upside-down world, weakening Chinese growth is seen as a positive for risk assets.  The ongoing ‘bad news is good’ meme continues to drive markets and this weaker Chinese data was no exception.  Clearly, investors believe that the Chinese are going to add more stimulus, whether fiscal or monetary being irrelevant, and have responded by snapping up risk assets.  The result was higher equity prices in Asia (Nikkei +1.8%, Hang Seng +1.1%, Shanghai +2.0%) as well as throughout Europe (CAC +0.8%, FTSE 100 +0.95%, DAX +0.1%) with the DAX having the most trouble this morning.  And don’t worry, US futures are all higher by around 0.5% as I type.

But it was not just Chinese equities that benefitted last night, investors snapped up Chinese 10-year bonds as well, driving yields lower by 5bps as expectations of further policy ease are widespread in the investment community there. That performance is juxtaposed versus what we are witnessing in developed market bonds, where yields are actually slightly firmer, although by less than 1 basis point, as the risk-on attitude encourages investors to shift from fixed income to equity weightings.

Of course, all this price action continues to reflect the fact that the Fed, last week, was not nearly as hawkish as many had expected with the tapering question remaining wide open, and no timetable whatsoever with regard to rate movement.  And that brings us to the month’s most important data point, Non-farm Payrolls, which will be released this Friday.  At this early point in the week, the median forecast, according to Bloomberg, is 900K with the Unemployment Rate falling to 5.7%.

Given we appear to be at an inflection point in some FOMC members’ thinking, I believe Friday’s number may have more importance than an August release would ordinarily demand.  Recall, the recent trend of US data has been good, but below expectations.  Another below expectations outcome here would almost certainly result in a strong equity and bond rally as investors would conclude that the tapering story was fading.  After all, the Fed seems highly unlikely to begin tapering into a softening economy.  Last week’s GDP data (6.5%, exp 8.5%) and core PCE (3.5%, exp 3.7%) are just the two latest examples of a slowing growth impulse in the US.  That is not the time when the Fed would historically tighten policy, and I don’t believe this time will be different.

There is, however, a lot of time between now and Friday, with the opportunity for many new things to occur.  Granted, it is the beginning of August, a time when most of Europe goes on vacation along with a good portion of the Wall Street crowd and investment community as a whole, so the odds of very little happening are high.  But recall that market liquidity tends to be much less robust during August as well, so any new information could well lead to an outsized impact.  And finally, historically, August is one of the worst month for US equities, with an average decline of 0.12% over the past 50 years.

Keeping this in mind, what else has occurred overnight?  While bad news may be good for stock prices, as it implies lower rates for even longer, slowing growth is not an energy positive as evidenced by WTI’s (-1.8%) sharp decline.  Interestingly, gold (-0.25%) is not benefitting either, as arguably the reduced inflation story implies less negative real yields.  More surprisingly, copper (+0.7%) and Aluminum (+0.6%) are both firmer this morning, which is a bit incongruous on a weaker growth story.

As to the dollar, it is broadly weaker, albeit not by much, with G10 moves all less than 0.2% although we have seen some much larger gains in the EMG space.  On top of that list sits ZAR (+1.15%) and TRY (+1.1).  The former is quite surprising given the PMI data fell by a record amount to 43.5, 14 points below last month’s reading as rioting in the wake of the Zuma arrest had a huge negative impact on business sentiment and expectations.  Turkey, on the other hand, showed a solid gain in PMI data, which bodes well for the economy amid slowing growth in many other places.  After those two, the gains were far more modest with HUF (+0.5%) and RUB (+0.35%) the next best performers with both the forint and the ruble benefitting from more hawkish central bank comments.

Obviously, it is a big data week as follows:

Today ISM Manufacturing 60.9
ISM Prices Paid 88.0
Construction Spending 0.5%
Tuesday Factory Orders 1.0%
Wednesday ADP Employment 650K
ISM Services 60.5
Thursday Initial Claims 382K
Coninuing Claims 3260K
Trade Balance -$74.0B
Friday Nonfarm Payrolls 900K
Private Payrolls 750K
Manufacturing Payrolls 28K
Unemployment Rate 5.7%
Average Hourly Earnings 0.3% (3.9% Y/Y)
Average Weekly Hours 34.7
Participation Rate 61.7%
Consumer Credit $22.0B

Source: Bloomberg

Beyond the data, surprisingly, we only hear from three Fed speakers as many must be on holiday.  But at this point, the market is pretty sure that it is only a matter of time before the Fed starts to taper, so unless they want to really change that message, which I don’t believe is the case, they can sit on the sidelines for now.  of course, that doesn’t mean they are going to taper, just that the market expects it.

While the dollar is opening the week on its back foot, I don’t expect much follow through weakness, although neither do I expect much strength.  I suspect many participants will be biding their time ahead of Friday’s report unless there is some exogenous signal received.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

The Tapering Walk

For those who expected a hawk
When Powell completed his talk
T’was somewhat depressing
That Jay was professing
They’d not walk the tapering walk

Then last night, from China, we learned
A falling stock market concerned
The powers that be
Thus, they did agree
To pander to those who’d been burned

Apparently, the Fed is not yet ready to alter its policy in any way.  That is the message Chairman Powell delivered yesterday through the FOMC statement and following press conference.  Though it seems clear there was a decent amount of discussion regarding the tapering of asset purchases, in the end, not only was there no commitment on the timing of such tapering, there was no commitment on the timing of any potential decision.  Instead, Chairman Powell explained that while progress had been made toward their goals, “substantial further progress” was still a ways away, especially regarding the employment situation.

When asked specifically about the fact that inflation was currently much higher than the FOMC’s target and whether or not that met the criteria for averaging 2%, he once again assured us that recent price rises would be transitory.  Remember, the dictionary definition of transitory is simply, ‘not permanent’.  Of course, the question is exactly what does the Fed mean is not going to be permanent?  It was here that Powell enlightened us most.  He explained that while price rises that have already occurred would likely not be reversed, he was concerned only with the ongoing pace of those price rises.  The Fed’s contention is that the pace of rising prices will slow down and fall back to levels seen prior to the onset of the Covid pandemic.

Of course, no Powell Q&A would be complete without a mention of the “tools” the Fed possesses in the event their inflation views turn out to be wrong.  Jay did not disappoint here, once again holding that on the off chance inflation seems not to be transitory, they will address it appropriately.  This, however, remains very questionable.  As the tools of which they speak, higher interest rates, will have a decisively negative impact on asset markets worldwide, it is difficult to believe the Fed will raise rates aggressively enough to combat rising inflation and allow asset markets to fall sharply.  In order to combat inflation effectively, history has shown real interest rates need to be significantly positive, which means if inflation is running at 5%, nominal rates above 6% will be required.  Ask yourself how the global economy, with more than $280 Trillion of debt outstanding, will respond to interest rates rising 600 basis points. Depression anyone?

At any rate, the upshot of the FOMC meeting was that the overall impression was one of a more dovish hue than expected going in, and the market response was exactly as one might expect.  Equity markets rebounded in the US and have continued that path overnight.  Bond markets rallied a bit in the US, although with risk appetite back in vogue, have ceded some ground this morning.  Commodity prices are rising and the dollar is under pressure.

Speaking of risk appetite, the other key story this week had been China and the apparent crackdown on specific industries like payments and education.  While Tuesday night’s comments by the Chinese helped to stabilize markets there, that was clearly not enough.  So, last night we understand that the China Securities Regulatory Commission gathered a group of bankers to explain that China was not seeking to disengage from the world nor prevent its companies from accessing capital markets elsewhere.  They went on to explain that recent crackdowns on tech and educational companies were designed to help those companies “grow in the proper manner”, a statement that could only be made by a communist apparatchik.  But in the end, the assurances given were effective as equity markets in Hong Kong and China were sharply higher and those specific companies that had come under significant pressure rebounded on the order of 7%-10%.  So, clearly there is no reason to worry.

Now, I’m sure you all feel better that things are just peachy everywhere.  The combination of Chairman Powell removing any concerns over inflation getting out of hand and the Chinese looking out for our best interests regarding the method of growth in its economy has led to a strongly positive risk sentiment.  As such, it should be no surprise that equity prices are higher around the world.  Asia started things (Nikkei +0.75%, Hang Seng +3.3%, Shanghai +1.5%) and Europe has followed suit (DAX +0.45%, CAC +0.7%, FTSE 100 +0.9%).  US futures have not quite caught the fever with the NASDAQ (-0.2%) lagging, although the other two main indices are slightly higher.

In the bond market, investors are selling as they no longer feel the need of the relative safety there, with Treasury yields higher by 3bps, while Bunds (+2bps), AOTs (+1bp) and Gilts (+2.7bps) are all under pressure.  But remember, yields remain at extremely low levels and real yields remain deeply negative, so a few bps here is hardly a concern.

Commodity prices have waived off concerns over the delta variant slowing the economy down and are higher across the board.  Oil (+0.25%), gold (+0.85%), copper (+1.1%) and the entire agricultural space are embracing the renewed growth narrative.

Finally, the dollar, as would be expected during a clear risk-on session and in the wake of the Fed explaining that tapering is not coming to a screen near you anytime soon, is lower across the board.  In the G10 space, NZD (+0.6%) and NOK (+0.55%) are leading the way higher, which is to be expected given the movement in commodity prices.  CAD (+0.45%) is next in line.  But even the yen (+0.1%) has edged higher despite the positive risk attitude.  One could easily describe this as a pure dollar sell-off.

In the emerging markets, HUF (+0.85%) is the leader as traders are back focused on the hawkishness of the central bank and an imminent rate hike, now ignoring the lack of EU funding that remains an open issue.  ZAR (+0.8%) is next on the commodity story with KRW (+0.7%) in the bronze medal position as exporters took advantage of the weakest won in nearly a year to sell dollars and then Samsung’s earnings blew away expectations on the huge demand for semiconductors, and funds flowed into the equity market.

We get our first look at Q2 GDP this morning (exp 8.5%) with the Consumption component expected to rise 10.5% on a SAAR basis.  We also see Initial Claims (385K) and Continuing Claims (3183K).  Recall, last week Initial Claims were a much higher than expected 419K, so weakness here could easily start to cause some additional concern at the Fed and delay the tapering discussion even further.  With the FOMC behind us, we can look forward to a great deal more Fedspeak, although it appears many of the committee members are on vacation, as we only have two scheduled in the next week, and they come tomorrow.  I imagine that calendar will fill in as time passes.

Putting it all together shows that any Fed hawks remain in the distinct minority, and that the party will continue for the foreseeable future.  Overall, the dollar has been trading in a range and had been weakly testing the top of that range.  It appears that move is over, and we seem likely to drift lower for the next several sessions at least, but there is no breakout on the horizon.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Jay’s Watershed

The PMI data released
This morning show prices increased
As bottlenecks build
With orders unfilled
Inflation has shown it’s a beast

The question is, how will the Fed
Respond as they’re looking ahead
Will prices be tamed
Or else be inflamed
This may well be Jay’s watershed

Yesterday’s ECB meeting pretty much went according to plan.  There is exactly zero expectation that Lagarde and her crew will be tightening policy at any point in the remote future.  In fact, while she tried to be diplomatic over a description of when they would consider tightening policy; when they see inflation achieving their 2.0% target at the “midpoint” of their forecast horizon of two to three years, this morning Banque de France Governor Villeroy was quite explicit in saying the ECB’s projections must show inflation stable at 2.0% in 12-18 months.  In truth, it is rare for a central banker to give an explicit timeframe on anything, so this is a bit unusual.  But, in the end, the ECB essentially promised that they are not going to consider tightening policy anytime soon.  They will deal with the asset purchase programs at the next meeting, but there is no indication they are going to reduce the pace of purchases, whatever name they call the program.

One cannot be surprised that the euro fell in the wake of the ECB meeting as the market received confirmation of their previous bias that the Fed will be tightening policy before the ECB.  But will they?

Before we speak of the Fed let’s take a quick look at this morning’s PMI data out of Europe.  The most notable feature of the releases, for Germany France and the Eurozone as a whole was the rapid increase in prices.  Remember, this is a diffusion index, where the outcome is the difference between the number of companies saying they are doing something (in this case raising prices) and the number saying they are not.  In Europe, the input price index was 89, while the selling price index rose to 71.  Both of these are record high levels and both indicate that price pressures are very real in Europe despite much less robust growth than in the US.  And remember, the ECB has promised not to tighten until they see stable inflation in their forecasts 18 months ahead.  (I wonder what they will do if they see sharply rising inflation in that time frame?)

While the latest CPI reading from the Eurozone was relatively modest at 2.0%, it strikes me that price pressures of the type described by the PMI data will change those numbers pretty quickly.  Will the ECB respond if growth is still lagging?  My money is on, no, they will let prices fly, but who knows, maybe Madame Lagarde is closer in temperament to Paul Volcker than Arthur Burns.

Which brings us back to the Fed and their meeting next week.  The market discussion continues to be on the timing of any tapering of asset purchases as well as the details of how they will taper (stop buying MBS first or everything in proportion).  But I wonder if the market is missing the boat on this question.  It seems to me the question is not when will they taper but will they taper at all?  While we have not heard from any FOMC member for a week, this week’s data continues to paint a picture of an economy that has topped out and is beginning to roll over.  The most concerning number was yesterday’s Initial Claims at a much higher than expected 419K.  Not only does that break the recent downtrend, but it came in the week of the monthly survey which means there is some likelihood that the July NFP report will be quite disappointing.  Given the Fed’s hyper focus on employment, that will certainly not encourage tapering.  The other disappointing data release was the Chicago Fed National Activity Index, a number that does not get a huge amount of play, but one that is a pretty good descriptor of overall activity.  It fell sharply, to 0.09, well below both expectations and last month’s reading, again indicating slowing growth momentum.

This morning we will see the flash PMI data for the US (exp 62.0 Mfg, 64.5 Services) but of more interest will be the price components here.  Something tells me they will be in the 80’s or 90’s as prices continue to rise everywhere.  While I believe the Fed should be tapering, and raising rates too, I continue to expect them to do nothing of the sort.  History has shown that when put in these circumstances, the Fed, and most major central banks, respond far too slowly to prevent inflation getting out of hand and then ultimately are required to become very aggressive, à la Paul Volcker from 1979-82, to turn things around.  But that is a long way off in the future.

But for now, we wait for Wednesday’s FOMC statement and the following press conference.  Until then, the narrative remains the Fed is going to begin tapering sometime in 2022 and raising rates in 2023.  With that narrative, the dollar is going to remain well-bid.

Ok, on a summer Friday, it should be no surprise that markets are not very exciting.  We did see some weakness in Asia (Hang Seng -1.45%, Shanghai -0.7%, Nikkei still closed) but Europe feels good about the ECB’s promise of easy money forever with indices there all nicely higher (DAX +1.0%, CAC /-1.0%, FTSE 100 +0.8%).  US futures are higher by about 0.5% at this hour, adding to yesterday’s modest gains.

Bond markets are behaving as one would expect in a risk-on session, with yields edging higher.  Treasuries are seeing a gain of 1.3bps while Europe has seen a bit more selling pressure with yields higher by about 2bps across the board.

Commodity price are broadly higher this morning with oil (+0.1%) consolidating its recent rebound but base metals (Cu +0.4%, Al +0.7% and Sn +1.1%) all performing well.  All that manufacturing activity is driving those metals higher.  Precious metals, meanwhile, are under pressure (Au -0.5%. Ag -1.1%).

Finally, the dollar is doing well this morning despite the positive risk attitude.  In the G10, JPY (-0.3%) is the laggard as Covid infections spread, notably in the Olympic village, and concerns over the situation grow.  But both GBP (-0.25%) and CHF (-0.25%) are also under pressure, largely for the same reasons as Covid infections continue to mount.  The only gainer of note is NZD (+0.2%) which is the beneficiary of short covering going into the weekend.

In the emerging markets, ZAR (-0.55%) is the worst performer, falling as concerns grow that the SARB will remain too dovish as inflation rises there.  Recall, they just saw a higher than expected CPI print, but there is no indication that policy tightening is on the way.  HUF (-0.5%) is the other noteworthy laggard as the ongoing philosophical differences between President Orban and the EU have resulted in delays for Hungary to receive further Covid related aid that is clearly needed in the country.  The forint remains weak despite a much more hawkish tone from the central bank as well.

Other than the PMI data, there is nothing else to be released and we remain in the Fed’s quiet period, so no comments either.  Right now, the market is accumulating dollars on the basis of the idea the Fed will begin tapering soon.  If equities continue to rally, this goldilocks narrative could well help the dollar into the weekend.

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe
Adf

Christine Lagarde’s Goal

This morning, Christine Lagarde’s goal
Is focused on how to cajole
The market to see
That her ECB
Has total command and control

Ahead of the ECB statement and the subsequent press conference this morning, markets are mostly biding their time.  Monday’s risk-off session is but a hazy memory and everyone is completely back on board for the reflation trade despite rising numbers of Covid cases as well as newly imposed lockdowns by governments throughout the world.  While that may seem incongruous, apparently, the belief is that any such lockdowns will be for a much shorter period this time than we saw last year, and so the impact on economic activity will be much smaller.

With a benign backdrop, it is worthwhile, I believe, to consider what we are likely to see and hear from the ECB and how it may impact markets.  We already know that they have changed their inflation target from, “close to, but below 2.0%” to ‘2.0%’.  In addition, we have been told that there is a willingness to accept a period of time where inflation runs above their target as the ECB seeks to fine-tune both the message and the outcome.  Of course, when you think about what CPI measures, it is designed to measure the average rate of price increases for the population as a whole, the idea of fine-tuning something of this nature is ridiculous.  Add to that the extreme difficulty in measuring the data (after all, what exactly makes up the consumer basket? and how does it change over time?  and isn’t it different for literally every person?) and the fact that central banks are concerned if inflation prints at 1.7% or 2.0% is ludicrous.  As my friend @inflation_guy (you should follow him on Twitter) always explains, you cannot reject the null hypothesis that 1.7% and 2.0% are essentially the same thing in this context.  In other words, there is no difference between 2.0% inflation, where central bankers apparently feel comfortable, and 1.7% inflation, where central bankers bemoan the impending deflationary crisis.

As well, the ECB is going to explain their new asset purchase process.  Currently, there are two programs, the Public Sector Purchase Program (PSPP) which is the original QE program and had rules about adhering to the capital key and not purchasing more than 33% of the outstanding debt of any nation in order to prevent monetizing that debt.  Covid brought a second program, the Pandemic Emergency Purchase Program (PEPP), which had no such restrictions regarding what was eligible and how much of any particular nation’s bonds could be acquired but was limited in size and time.  Granted they both expanded the size of the program twice and extended its maturity, but at least they tried to make believe it was temporary.  The recent framework review is likely to allow PEPP to expire in March 2022, as currently planned, but at the same time expand the PSPP and its pace of purchases so that there will be no difference at all to the market.  In other words, though they will attempt to describe their policies as ‘new’, nothing is likely to change at all.

Finally, they apparently will be altering their forward guidance to promise interest rates will remain unchanged at current levels until inflation is forecast to reach or slightly surpass 2% and remain there for some time within the central bank’s projection period of two to three years.  Given the decades long lack of inflationary impulse in the Eurozone due to anemic underlying economic growth and ongoing high unemployment, this essentially means that the ECB will never raise rates again.  The ongoing financial repression being practiced by central banks shows no sign of abating and the ECB’s big framework adjustment will do nothing to change that outcome.

Will any of this matter?  That is debatable.  First, the market is already fully aware of all these mooted changes, so any price impact has arguably already been seen.  And second, have they really changed anything?  I would argue the answer to that is no.  While the descriptions of policies may have changed, the actions forthcoming will remain identical.  Interest rates will not move, and they will continue to purchase the same number of bonds that they are buying now.  As such, despite a lot of tongue wagging, I expect that the impact on the euro will be exactly zero.  Instead, the single currency will remain focused on the Fed’s (remember the FOMC meets next week), interest rate policy and the overall risk appetite in the market.

Turning to markets ahead of the ECB announcement we see that risk remains in vogue with strong gains in Asia (Hang Seng +1.85, Shanghai +0.35%, Nikkei closed) and Europe (DAX +0.9%, CAC +0.8%) although the FTSE 100 is barely changed on the day.  US futures are all green and higher by about 0.2% at this hour.

Bond markets have calmed down after a few very choppy days with Treasury yields backing up 1bp and now back to 1.30%, nearly 18 basis points above the low print seen Monday.  European sovereigns are mixed with Gilts seeing yields edge up by 0.8bps, while OATs have seen yields slide 0.8bps and Bunds are unchanged on the day.  Of course, with the ECB imminent, traders are waiting to see if there is any surprise forthcoming so are being cautious.

Oil prices continue their sharp rebound from Monday’s virtual collapse, rising another 0.6% and now firmly back above $70/bbl.  It turns out that Monday was a great opportunity to buy oil on the cheap!  Precious metals continue to disappoint with gold (-0.4%) slipping back below $1800/oz, although really just chopping around in a range.  Copper is firmer by 0.8% this morning but the rest of the non-ferrous group is slightly softer.

As to the dollar, it is under pressure virtually across the board this morning as there is certainly no fear visible in markets.  In the G10, NOK (+0.9%) is the leader on the back of oil’s rebound with the rest of the bloc seeing broad-based, but shallow, gains.  In the emerging markets, HUF (+0.55%) is the leader after recent comments from a central banker that they will be raising rates until their inflation goal is met.  (So old school!)  Meanwhile, overnight saw strength in APAC currencies (PHP +0.45%, IDR +0.4%, KRW +0.35%) as positive risk sentiment saw foreign inflows into the entire region’s stock markets.

We do get some data this morning starting with Initial (exp 350K) and Continuing (3.1M) Claims at 8:30 as well as Leading Indicators (0.8%) and Existing Home Sales (5.90M).  Fed speakers remain incommunicado due to the quiet period so as long as the ECB meets expectations the dollar should continue to follow its risk theme, which today is risk-on => dollar lower.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

On Command

As Covid infections expand
Worldwide, and more meetings get banned
The worry is that
Growth’s surge will fall flat
And stocks will not rise on command

But Monday’s price action was fleeting
As dip buyers now are competing
To add to their stash
Of low value trash
Before the Fed’s next monthly meeting

Come with me on a journey to the past.  A time when investors considered risks as well as rewards and if those risks seemed elevated, those very same investors would consider actually selling stocks and running to the (relative) safety of the government bond market.  Risks could include slower growth, higher inflation or even the recurrence of a global pandemic.  Naturally, under circumstances of that nature, investors displayed caution.  Now, fortunately, situations like that don’t seem to happen very often anymore, although if you think back to…Monday, that seemed to be the developing narrative.   Ahh, but as Dinah Washington crooned so fantastically in 1959, What a Difference a Day Makes.

Monday’s price action and narrative might as well have occurred in 2008 during the GFC given how long ago it seems and how short memories have become over time.  So, all of the angst regarding the spread of the delta variant and additional lockdowns around the world, as well as the impact that would have on the global growth scenario has essentially been expunged from the record and it’s now all sunshine, lollipops and rainbows going forward.  At least, that’s the way it seems this morning.

Yesterday saw a significant rebound in the equity market and a sharp sell-off in Treasury and other government bond markets as the bargain hunters were out in force taking advantage of the 2% dip seen Monday.  After all, it’s not as though there was any new news released to encourage a change in view.  The only data release was Housing Starts which were marginally better than expected, but then everybody knows the housing market is en fuego.  With both the Fed and ECB in their quiet periods ahead of upcoming meetings, there were no central bank statements to help ameliorate concerns that had become manifest on Monday.  Which leads to the conclusion that nothing in the zeitgeist has changed; buy the dip because there is no alternative remains the single most powerful underlying force in markets today.

Which brings us to this morning’s situation, where the rally continues in equity markets, bond markets continue to retreat from their recent highs and commodity markets are getting their feet under themselves again.  What about inflation you may ask?  Bah, old news.  Clearly it is transitory as there hasn’t been a higher than expected print in more than a week!  (Well, that’s not strictly true as this morning South African CPI was released at a higher than expected 4.9% which has pushed back on the growing narrative that the SARB might be able to back off its mooted tightening.)  But South Africa is insignificant in the broad scheme of things, so the combination of increasing infections there along with rioting over the imprisonment of former president Jacob Zuma has just not been enough to concern investors in other markets.

One has to give props to the central banking community for their ability to convince economists, politicians and investors that the worsening inflation situation is really a very short-term blip, and that the big problem remains deflation.  Of course, it is not hard to convince politicians once they understand this stance allows for more spending.  Economists tend to be lost in their models so aren’t that important anyway.  Investors, however, have historically taken these things with a bit more skepticism, and the fact that the market is responding in exactly the manner central banks want is the truly surprising outcome.  Nothing has changed my view that this entire house-of-cards-like market will come tumbling down at some point, but it is very clear that as John Maynard Keynes explained in 1924, “the market can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent.”  In other words, calling the timing of any significant pullback is a fool’s errand, and I will endeavor not to be foolish today.

As to markets today, it is very clear by now that risk is back on.  Equities in Asia were generally higher (Nikkei +0.6%, Hang Seng -0.1%, Shanghai +0.7%) and are quite strong in Europe (DAX +0.9%, CAC +1.4%, FTSE 100 +1.7%).  US futures you ask?  Generally higher as well, with DOW +0.4%, although NASDAQ futures are actually -0.1% at this hour.  The rotation into value seems to be this morning’s view.

The bond market is behaving as expected with investors quickly getting out of their recently added long positions.  Treasury yields are higher by 2.2bps, while Bunds, OATs and Gilts are all about 1.5bps higher this morning.  There is certainly no reason to own bonds when stocks are on the move!

Commodity markets are mixed this morning, although the most important of the bunch, oil, is higher by 1.5% and continuing to rebound from Monday’s substantial declines.  That price action on Monday was clearly technical in nature and shook out a great many weak hands.  The case for higher oil prices remains strong in my view, as the lack of capex in the sector as well as the ESG efforts to starve the industry of capital will result in a supply demand mismatch over time that will only resolve itself with higher prices.  As to the rest of the commodity space, precious metals are mixed (Au -0.5%, Ag 0.7%), as are base metals (Cu -0.2%, al +0.2%) and Ags (Soybeans -0.4%, Wheat +0.4%).  In other words, there is no directional bias here.

Finally, in the currency markets, movement has been a bit more muted overall, and mixed just like elsewhere.  In the G10 bloc, NOK (+0.35%) is following oil higher and JPY (-0.25%) is seeing its haven status work against it as it reverts to form, with the rest of the bloc +/- 0.1% meaning there is nothing to discuss.  In the emerging markets, there is a bit more weakness with ZAR (-0.4%) still suffering from the increased spread of Covid as are KRW (-0.3%) and the CE4 (HUF -0.3%, CZK -0.3%, PLN -0.25%).  On the plus side there is only CNY (+0.2%) which was supported by comments from the central bank claiming they will keep the yuan “basically stable”.

There is no data and no speakers today which means that the FX market is left to watch other markets for its cues.  With risk back in vogue, I expect that the dollar could cede some ground against the majors, but the ongoing issues throughout different emerging markets are likely to continue to weigh on currencies in that sector.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Covid’s Resurgence

Covid’s resurgence Has begun to detract from Asia’s second spring

It seems the global economic rebound is starting to falter.  At least, that is what one might conclude from the run of data we are seeing from virtually every nation, as well as the signals we are starting to get from the global central banking community.  For instance, on the data front, this morning’s UK numbers showed that growth, while still quite positive, is not quite living up to expectations.  May’s GDP reading was 0.8%, a very good number (it would annualize to nearly 10% GDP growth) but far below analysts forecasts of 1.5%.  Similarly, IP also printed at 0.8%, again well above last month’s data but falling far short of the 1.4% expectations.  The point is that economists’ views of the reopening burst seem to have been a bit overexuberant.  The UK is hardly alone in this situation with Italy also showing disappointing IP data for May (-1.5% vs. +0.3% expected).  And we saw the same thing from both Germany and France earlier this month.  In a nutshell, it appears that the European economy, while certainly growing more robustly than Q1, may well have seen its best days.

Meanwhile, in Asia, the delta variant of Covid-19 has become a much larger problem, with Japan, South Korea, Indonesia and Thailand particularly hard hit.  You have probably heard that the Olympics will be spectatorless this year in Tokyo as the Suga government has implemented yet another emergency lockdown order that is not due to expire until the end of August.  In South Korea, infections are rising as well and the government has increased curbs on gatherings of more than 5 people, while Thailand has once again closed ‘non-essential’ businesses to prevent the spread of the disease.  Vaccination rates throughout Asia have been much lower than elsewhere, with most of Europe and the US having seen between 40% and 50% of the population vaccinated while Asian countries are in the 5% – 10% range.  The issue is that while the virus continues to spread, economic activity will continue to be impaired and that means that markets in those economies are going to feel the pain, as likely will their currencies.

Of course, the US has not been immune from this run of disappointing data as virtually every reading in the past month has failed to meet expectations.  Two broader indicators of this slowdown are the Atlanta Fed’s GDPNow number, which is currently at 7.78%, obviously a strong number, but down from 13.71% two month’s ago.  As well, the Citi Economic Surprise index has fallen from 270 a year ago to essentially 0.0 today.  This measures actual data vs. median expectations and is indicative of the fact that data continues to miss its targets in the US as well as throughout the rest of the world.

Arguably, it is this downturn in economic activity that has been the key driving force in the bond market’s remarkable rally for the past two months, although this morning, it appears that some profit taking is underway as Treasury yields have backed up 4.8bps.  Keep in mind, though, that yields had fallen more than 25bps at their lowest yesterday in just the past two weeks, so a reprieve is no real surprise.  

The question at hand has become, is this just a pause in activity, or have we already seen the peak and now that fiscal stimulus is behind us, growth is going to revert to its pre-pandemic trend, or worse?  My sense is the latter is more likely and given the extraordinary amount of debt that was issued during the past year, the growth trend is likely to be even worse than before the pandemic.  However, slowing growth is not necessarily going to be the death knell for inflation by any means.  Lack of investment and shortages of key inputs will continue to pressure prices higher, as will the demand from consumers who remain flush with cash.  The worst possible outcome, stagflation, remains entirely realistic as an outcome.

And on that cheery note, let’s survey markets quickly.  While yesterday was a clear risk-off session, this morning it is just the opposite, with equity markets rebounding and bonds under some pressure.  While the Nikkei (-0.6%) failed to rebound, we did see the Hang Seng (+0.7%) pick up some while Shanghai (0.0%) was flat.  The big news in China was the PBOC reduced the RRR for banks by 0.5%, to be implemented next week.  Remember, the Chinese continue to try to fight the blowing up of bubbles in markets, both financial and real estate, but are looking for ways to loosen policy.  Remember, too, that inflation in China remains quite high, at least at the factory gate, with PPI released last night at 8.8% Y/Y.  This reading was exactly as forecast and a touch lower than last month’s reading.  But it is still 8.8%!  If this starts to trend lower over the coming months, that will be a strong signal regarding global inflationary concerns, but we will have to wait to see.

European markets, though, are uniformly stronger, led by the CAC (+1.75%) although the DAX (+0.9%) and FTSE 100 (+0.7%) are both doing well this morning despite the weaker data.  It appears that investors remain comforted by the ECB’s continued commitment to supporting the economy and their commitment to not withdraw that support if inflation readings start to tick higher.  As to US futures, while the NASDAQ is unchanged at this hour, both SPX and DOW futures are higher by around 0.5%.

It is not only Treasuries that are selling off, but we are seeing weakness in Gilts (+3.8bps), Bunds (+1.1bps) and OATs +0.5bps) as well.  After all, every bond market rallied over the past weeks, so profit-taking is widespread.

On the commodity front, oil continues to trade in a hugely volatile manner, currently higher by 1.15% after rebounding more than 3% from its lows yesterday.  Base metals are also moving higher (Cu +1.7%, Al +0.6%, Sn +0.1%) although gold (-0.2%) continues to range trade around the $1800/oz level.

As to currencies, the picture is mixed with commodity currencies strong this morning alongside the commodity rally (NOK +0.8%, AUD +0.55%, NZD +0.3%) while the yen (-0.3%) is giving up some of yesterday’s haven related gains.  EMG currencies are behaving in a similar manner with RUB (+0.75%), ZAR (+0.6%) and MXN (+0.3%) all benefitting from higher commodity prices.  However, we are also seeing HUF (+0.85%) rise sharply as inflation surprised to the high side at 5.3% Y/Y and encouraged traders to bet on tighter monetary policy given its resurgence.  On the downside, the Asian bloc suffered the most (PHP -0.4%, THB -0.4%, KRW -0.3%) as traders sold on the negative Covid news.

There is no data today nor any Fed speakers.  That means that FX markets will be looking to equities and bonds for it’s cues, with equity markets seeming to have the stronger relationship right now.  The bond/dollar correlation seems to have broken down lately.    While the dollar is soft at this time, I see no reason for a major sell-off in any way.  As it is a summer Friday, I would look for a relatively quiet session with a drift lower in the dollar as long as risk assets perform well.

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe

Adf

Nirvana Awaits

While Powell and friends fail to see

Inflation rise dangerously

Down south of the border

They fear its disorder

And burden on society





So, Mexico shocked and raised rates

While Fedspeak back here in the States

Continues the story

It’s all transitory

And claiming Nirvana awaits

Mexico became the latest emerging market nation to raise interest rates when they surprised the analyst’s community as well as markets by raising their base rate by 0.25% yesterday afternoon to 4.25%.  The FX market response was swift and certain with the peso gaining more than 1.0% in the first minutes after the announcement although that has since slightly abated.  “Although the shocks that have affected inflation are expected to be of a transitory nature, given their variety, magnitude and the extended time frame in which they have been affecting inflation, they may pose a risk to the price formation process,” the Banxico board explained in their accompanying statement.  In other words, although they are paying lip service to the transitory concept, when CPI rose to a higher than expected 6.02% yesterday, it was apparently a step too far.  Expectations for further rate hikes have already been built into the markets while views on the peso are improving as well.

The juxtaposition yesterday of Mexico with the UK, where the BOE left policy rates on hold at 0.10% and maintained the QE program intact despite raising its inflation forecast to 3.0% for next year, is quite interesting.  Historically, it was the emerging market central banks who would seek growth at any cost and allow inflation to run hot while trying to support the economy and the developed market central banks who managed a more disciplined monetary policy, working to prevent inflation from rising while allowing their economy’s to grow without explicit monetary policy support.  But it seems that another symptom of the Covid-19 pandemic is that it has reversed the ‘polarity’ of central bank thinking.  Mexico is the 4th major EMG nation (Russia, Brazil and Poland are the others) to have raised rates and are anticipated to continue doing so to combat rising prices.  Meanwhile, when the Bank of Canada reduced the amount of its QE purchases, it was not only the first G10 bank to actually remove some amount of monetary largess, it was seen as extraordinary.  

In the States, yesterday we heard from six more Fed speakers and it has become evident that there are two distinct views on the FOMC as to the proper course of action, although to a (wo)man, every speaker exclaimed that inflation was transitory.  Several regional Fed presidents (Bullard, Bostic and Kaplan) are clearly in the camp of tapering QE and potentially raising rates by the end of next year, but the Fed leadership (Powell, Clarida, Williams) are adamantly opposed to the idea of tightening policy anytime soon.  And the thing is, the hawks don’t even have a vote this year, although they do get to participate in the conversation.  The upshot is that it seems highly unlikely that the Fed is going to tighten policy anytime at all this year regardless of inflation readings going forward.  While ‘transitory’ has always been a fuzzy term, my take has always been a 2-3 quarter view, but yesterday we started to hear it could mean 2 years or more.  If that is the case, then prepare for a much worse ultimate outcome along with a much weaker dollar.

As markets and investors digest the latest central bank dogma, let us peruse the latest price action.  Yesterday’s equity market price action led to yet another set of new all-time highs in US indices and even Mexico’s Bolsa rose 0.75% after the rate hike!  Overnight saw a continuation of that view with the Nikkei (+0.65%), Hang Seng (+1.4%) and Shanghai (+1.15%) all rallying nicely.  Perhaps a bit more surprisingly this morning has seen a weaker performance in Europe (DAX -0.15%, CAC -0.1%, FTSE 100 +0.1%) despite slightly better than expected Confidence data out of Germany and Italy.  As vaccinations proceed apace on the continent, expectations for a renewed burst of growth are rising, yet today’s stock markets seem unimpressed.

At the same time, despite all the Fedspeak and concern over inflation, the 10-year Treasury yield has basically been unchanged all week and seems to have found a new home at 1.50%, right where it is now.  Since it had been a harbinger for markets up until the FOMC meeting last week, this is a bit surprising.  As to Europe, bonds there are actually under some pressure this morning (Bunds +1.7bps, OATs +2.9bps, Gilts +1.2bps) although given equity market performance, one is hard-pressed to call this a risk-on move.  Perhaps these markets are responding to the better tone of data, but they are not in sync with the equity space.

In commodity markets, prices are mixed this morning.  While oil (-0.25%) is softer, gold (+0.5%) and silver (+1.0%) are looking awfully good.  Base metals, too, are having a better session with Cu (+0.4%), Al (+1.5%) and Sn (+0.2%) all performing well.  Crop prices are also rising, between 0.25% and 0.5%.  Fear not for oil, however, as it remains firmly ensconced in its uptrend.

And lastly, in FX markets, the dollar is under modest pressure across most of the G10, with the bulk of the bloc firmer by between 0.1% and 0.2%, and only GBP (-0.2%) softer.  While we did see a slightly weaker than expected GfK Consumer Confidence number for the UK last night (-9 vs. expected -7) we also just saw CBI Retail Sales print at a much better than expected level.  In the end, it is hard to ascribe the pound’s movement, or any of the G10 really, to data.  It is far more likely positions being adjusted into the weekend.

In the emerging markets, the dollar is having a much tougher time with ZAR (+1.0%) and KRW (+0.6%) the leading gainers, but a number of currencies showing strength beyond ordinary market fluctuations.  While the rand’s move seems outsized, the strength in commodity prices is likely behind the trend in ZAR lately.  As to KRW, it seems that as well as the general risk on attitude, the market is pricing in the first policy tightening in Seoul and given the won’s recent mild weakness, traders were seen taking advantage to establish long positions.

We have some important data today led by Personal Income (exp -2.5%), Personal Spending (0.4%) and Core PCE (0.6% M/M, 3.4% Y/Y).  Then at 10:00 we see Michigan Confidence (86.5).  I want to believe the PCE data is important, but I fear that regardless of where it prints, it will be ignored as a product of base effects and so not a true reflection of the price situation.  Yesterday, Claims data was a bit worse than expected as was Durable Goods.  This is not to say things are collapsing, but it is growing more and more apparent, at least based on the data, that the peak in the economy has already been seen.  In fact, the Atlanta Fed GDPNow model has fallen back below 10.0% and appears to be trending lower.  The worst possible outcome for the economy would be slowing growth and rising inflation, and I fear that is where we may be heading given the current fiscal and monetary policy settings.  

That combination will be abysmal for the dollar but is unlikely to be clear before many more months have passed.  For now, I expect the dollar will revert to its risk profile, where risk-on days will see weakness and risk-off days see strength.  Today feels far more risk-on like and so a little further dollar weakness into the weekend seems a reasonable assumption.

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe

Adf

Hard to Explain

For those who believe that inflation

Is soon to explode ‘cross the nation

It’s hard to explain

Why yields only wane

Resulting in angst and vexation

But there is a possible clue

That might help the bond bears’ world view

In Q1 Ms. Yellen

Had Treasury sellin’

More bonds than the Fed could accrue

However, that’s no longer true

As Powell, through all of Q2

Will buy more each week

Than Janet will seek

To sell.  Lower yields then ensue.

With the FOMC meeting on the near horizon, traders are loath to take large positions in case there is a major surprise.  At this point, the market appears to broadly believe that any tapering talk is not going to happen until the Jackson Hole meeting in August, so the hawks are not expecting a boost.  At the same time, there is virtually no expectation that the Fed would consider increasing QE, thus the doves remain reliant on the transitory inflation narrative.  As it stands, the doves continue to hold the upper hand as while last week’s CPI print was shockingly high,  there has been much written about the drivers of that number are all due to level off shortly, and inflation will soon head back to its old 1.5%-2.0% range.

One of the things to which the doves all point is the 10-year yield and how it has done nothing but decline since the beginning of the quarter.  Now, that is a fair point, but the timing is also quite interesting.  While pundits on both sides of the discussion continue to point to inflation expectations and supply chain breakages and qualitative measures, there is something that has gotten far less press, but could well account for the counterintuitive movement in Treasury yields amid much higher inflation prints: the amount of Treasuries purchased by the Fed vs. the amount of new Treasuries issued by the Treasury.

In Q1, the US government issued net $342 billion while the Fed bought $240 billion in Treasury securities as part of QE.  (Remember, the other $120 billion was in mortgage-backed securities).  Given that foreign government buying of Treasuries has virtually disappeared, it should be no surprise that yields rose in order to attract buyers.  Q2, however, has seen a very different dynamic, as the US government has only issued $70 billion this quarter while the Fed continues to buy $240 billion each quarter.  With a price insensitive buyer hoovering up all the available securities and more, it is no surprise that Treasury yields have fallen.  Why, you may ask, has the Treasury only issued $70 billion in new debt?  Two things are driving that situation; first, Q2 is the big tax payment quarter of the year, so lots of cash flows into the Treasury; and second, the Treasury at the end of last year had $1.6 trillion in cash in their General Account at the Fed, which is essentially the government’s checking account.  However, they have drawn those balances down by half, thus have not needed to issue as much debt.

It’s funny how the move in yields just might be a simple supply/demand story, but that is not nearly as much fun as the narrative game.  So, let’s take a glimpse into Q3 planned Treasury issuance, which is widely available on the Treasury’s own website.  “During the July – September 2021 quarter, Treasury expects to borrow $821 billion in privately-held net marketable debt, assuming an end-of-September cash balance of $750 billion.”  The Fed, of course, is expected to buy another $240 billion in Treasuries in Q3, however, that appears to be a lot less than expected issuance.  My spidey-sense is tingling here, and telling me that come July, we are going to start to see yields turn higher again.  Far from the idea of tapering, if yields are rising sharply akin to Q1’s price action, we could see the Fed increase QE!  After all, somebody needs to buy those bonds.  And while this will be going on in the background, what we will largely read about is the changes in the narrative and inflation expectations.  As Occam pointed out with his razor, the simplest explanation is usually the best.

If this, admittedly, rough analysis has any validity, it is likely to have some very big impacts on markets in general, and on the dollar in particular.  In fact, if yields do reverse and head higher, especially if we move toward that 2.0% 10-year yield (or further) look for the dollar to find a lot of support.

As to market activity today, things remain fairly quiet with the recent positive risk attitude intact, but hardly excessively so.  Starting with equities in Asia, the Nikkei (+0.75%) had a nice gain after a better than expected IP print but was lonely with a holiday in China and through much of the continent keeping other markets closed.  Europe is in the green, but the gains are mostly modest (DAX +0.2%, CAC +0.2%, FTSE 100 +0.4%) as a slightly better than expected IP print along with continued dovish comments from Madame Lagarde help underpin the equity markets there.  Meanwhile, US futures are also modestly higher, but the NASDAQ’s 0.3% rise is by far the largest.

Turning to the bond market this morning, Treasury yields have backed up 0.8bps, but remain well below the 1.50% level which was seen as key support.  As per the above, I imagine that it will be a month before the real fireworks begin.  In Europe, while we did hear from Lagarde, we also heard from uber-hawk Robert Holtzmann, Austria’s central bank president, who was adamant that barring another Covid related shutdown, the PEPP will end in March.  Italian BTP’s were the most impacted bond from those comments with yields rising 2.0bps, while the main markets are seeing virtually no movement this morning.

In the commodity space, there is a real dichotomy today with oil (+0.7%) continuing its recent rally while gold (-1.1%) has fallen sharply.  Base metals have been mixed with relatively modest movement, but agricultural prices have fallen sharply (Soybeans -0.8%, Wheat -2.6%, Corn -2.8%) which appears to be a response to improved weather conditions.

Finally, the dollar has no real direction this morning.  NOK (+0.35%) is the leading gainer in the G10 on the back of oil’s rally but after that, there is a mix of gainers and losers, none of which have moved 0.2% implying no real new driving forces.  In the EMG bloc, last night saw KRW (-0.5%) catch up to Friday’s dollar rally, and this morning we see ZAR (-0.45%) as the worst performer on what seems to be market technicals, with traders beginning to establish new ZAR shorts after a very strong rally during the past year.  Some think it has gone too far.  But really, the FX market is not terribly interesting right now as we all await the Fed on Wednesday.

On the data front, there is some important information coming as follows:

Tuesday Retail Sales -0.6%
-ex autos 0.4%
PPI 0.5% (6.2% Y/Y)
-ex food & energy 0.5% (4.8% Y/Y)
IP 0.6%
Capacity Utilization 75.1%
Wednesday Housing Starts 1640K
Building Permits 1730K
FOMC Decision 0.00% – 0.25%
Thursday Initial Claims 360K
Continuing Claims 3.42M
Philly Fed 31.0
Leading Indicators 1.3%

Source: Bloomberg

So, while tomorrow will see much discussion regarding the growth narrative after Retail Sales, the reality is everybody is simply focused on the Fed on Wednesday.  Until then, I expect range trading.  After that…

Good luck and stay safe

Adf

Yields Are Repressed

You have to be mighty impressed
The bond market’s not even stressed
Although CPI
Has reached a new high
One wonders if yields are repressed

Clearly, there is only one story of import these days, and that is whether or not inflation is transitory.  Chairman Powell and his minions have spent the last several months harping on this idea, and although there was a time when several FOMC members seemed to get nervous and wanted to discuss tapering QE, it seems highly likely that next week’s FOMC meeting will focus on the fact that “substantial progress” has not yet been made toward the Fed’s goals of maximum employment and 2% average inflation.  Well, at least on the goal of maximum employment.  It seems pretty clear that they have made some progress on the inflation front.

While the headline Y/Y print of 5.0% was clearly impressive, and the highest since August 2008, personally, I am more impressed with the core M/M print of 0.7% as that is not impacted by what happened during the pandemic.  And the fact that this followed last month’s 0.9% print could indicate that inflation is becoming a bit less transitory.  But the Fed has done a wonderful job of selling its story.  One has to believe that Chairman Powell could not have wanted a better outcome than yesterday’s market price action with the S&P 500 making new highs while the bond market rallied sharply with the 10-year yield falling 6 basis points to 1.43%.

For a moment, let us try to unpack this price action.  On the one hand, it is easy to understand the equity rally as the decline in nominal yields alongside the rising recorded inflation has led to a dramatic fall in real yields.  One view, which many utilize, is that real 10-year yields are simply the 10-year yield less the current headline CPI rate.  Of course, right now, that comes to -3.57%, a level only seen a handful of times in the past, all of which occurred during significant inflationary periods in the 1970’s and early 1980’s.  Negative real yields are a boon for stocks, but historically are awful for the dollar and yet the dollar actually rallied slightly yesterday.  It seems to me that a more consistent outcome would require the dollar to decline sharply from here.  After all, even using Bund yields, currently -0.284%, and Eurozone CPI (2.0%), one sees real yields in the Eurozone far higher (-2.284%) than here in the US.  Something seems amiss.

Something else to consider is bond positioning.  There continues to be a great deal of discussion pointing to the bond market rally as a massive short squeeze.  Last week’s CFTC data was hardly indicative of that type of movement, although we will learn more this afternoon.  However, there is another place where both hedge funds and retail investors play, the ETF market, and when it comes to bond speculation, TLT is the product of choice.  Interestingly, more than 37% of the shares outstanding have been shorted in this ETF, a pretty good indication that there were a lot of bets for a higher yield.  But the word is that a significant portion of these shorts were closed out yesterday, on the order of $7 billion in short covering in total, which would certainly explain the sharp rally in the bond market.  This begs the question, is the price action technical in nature rather than a reflection of the views that inflation is truly transitory?  The problem with this question is we will not be able to answer it with any certainty for at least another three to four months.  But for now, the Fed has the upper hand.  In fact, there doesn’t seem to be any reason for them to adjust policy next week at all.  Why taper if the current policy mix is working?

Speaking of policy mixes that seem to be working, I would be remiss if I didn’t mention that the ECB meeting yesterday resulted in exactly…nothing.  Policy was left unchanged, Madame Lagarde promised to continue to buy assets at a faster pace than the first quarter, and then she spent an hour in her press conference saying virtually nothing.  It may have been her finest performance in the role.

The bond market seems to have made up its mind that the Fed is correct although there remain many pundits who disagree.  I expect that we will be continuing this discussion all summer long and with every high CPI print, you can look for the punditry to pump up the volume of their critiques of the Fed. However, we need only see one dip in the data for the Fed to claim victory and move on from the inflation discussion.  Next month’s CPI report will truly be important as the base effects will have disappeared.  Last year, the June M/M CPI was 0.5%.  If inflation is truly with us, we need to see M/M in June 2021 to be at least that high, if not a repeat of the 0.6%-0.8% numbers we have been seeing lately.  Between now and then we will see a number of price indicators including the Fed’s favorite core PCE.  For the past several months, every price indicator has been high and surprising on the high side.  The next months’ worth of data will be very important to both the Fed and the markets.  Enjoy the ride.

With two of the three key near-term catalysts now out of the way, all eyes will turn to next Wednesday’s FOMC meeting.  But that leaves us 4 sessions to trade in the interim.  Right now, with the fed narrative of transitory inflation dominating, it is easy to expect continued risk-on market performance.  Interestingly, that was not actually the case in Asia as the Nikkei (0.0%) was flat and Shanghai (-0.5%) fell although the Hang Seng (+0.35%) managed to close higher on the day.  Europe, however, got the memo and is green across the board (DAX +0.4%, CAC +0.7%, FTSE 100 +0.5%).  US futures, too, are picking up buyers as they all trade 0.25% or so higher at this hour.  

Meanwhile, in the bond market, Treasury yields have backed up 1.3bps, which looks far more technical than fundamental.  After all, they have fallen 18 bps in the past week, a rebound is no surprise.  However, European sovereign markets were closed before the bond party really started yesterday afternoon and they are in catch up mode today.  Bunds (-2.0bps) and OATS (-2.1bps) are performing well, but nothing like Gilts (-4.6bps), nor like the PIGS, all of which are seeing yield declines of at least 4bps.

Commodity prices are generally higher led by oil (WTI +0.5%) with the industrial metals all performing well (Cu +1.9%, Fe +1.0%, Sn +0.6%) although despite the dramatic decline in yields, gold (-0.5%) continues to underperform.  That feels like it is going to change soon.

Finally, in FX markets, the dollar is king of the G10, rising against all of its counterparts here with NZD (-0.4%) and SEK (-0.4%) leading the way down.  While the kiwi price action appears to be technical after having seen a decent rally lately, Sweden’s krona continues to suffer from its lower CPI print yesterday, once again delaying any idea that they may need to tighten policy in the near term.  The rest of the bloc is softer, but the movement has been far less impressive.

What makes that price action interesting is the fact that EMG currencies have actually had a much better performance with IDR (+0.4%), KRW (+0.4%) and TRY (+0.4%) all showing modest strength.  In Turkey, FinMin comments regarding the divergence between CPI and PPI were taken somewhat hawkishly.  In Seoul, a BOK governor mentioned the idea that one or two rate hikes should not be seen as tightening given the current record low level of interest rates (currently 0.50%).  However, it seems the market would see 50bps of tightening as tightening.  And lastly, the rupiah continues to benefit from foreign buying of bonds with inflows rising for a third consecutive week.

Data this morning brings Michigan Sentiment (exp 84.4) and careful attention will be paid to the inflation expectation readings, with the 1yr expected at 4.7%.  Remember, the Fed relies on those well-anchored inflation expectations, so if they are rising here, that might cause a little indigestion in Washington.

At this stage, just as we are seeing the bond market rally ostensibly on short covering, my sense is the dollar is behaving in the same way.  The data and rates would indicate the dollar should fall, but it continues to grind higher right now.  In the end, “the fundamentals things apply, as time goes by”1, and right now, they all point to a weaker dollar.  

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe
Adf

1.	Apologies to Wilson Dooley 

Quite Premature

In Europe, to pundits’ surprise

The rate of inflation did rise

The ECB’s sure

It’s quite premature

To think prices will reach new highs

Meanwhile at the PBOC

They altered FX policy

Banks there must now hold

More money, we’re told

Preventing the yuan to run free

Two big stories presented themselves since we last observed markets before the Memorial Day holiday in the States; a policy change by the PBOC raising FX reserve requirements in order to encourage less renminbi buying dollar selling, and the release of Eurozone CPI showing that rising demand into supply bottlenecks does, in fact, lead to rising prices.  In line with the second story, let us not forget that Friday’s core PCE reading of 3.1%, was not only higher than anticipated but reinforced the idea that inflation is rising more rapidly than central bankers would have you believe.

But let’s start with China, where the renminbi has been appreciating very steadily since last May, rising more than 11% in that time.  initially, this was not seen as a concern as the starting point for USDCNY was well above 7.0, which is a level that had widely been seen as concerning for the PBOC with respect to excessive weakness.  But twelve months later, it has become clear that the PBOC now believes enough is enough.  Remember, the Chinese economy continues to be heavily reliant on exports for total activity, and an appreciation of that magnitude, especially for the low value items that are produced and exported, can be a significant impediment to growth.  Remember, too, that while a strong renminbi helps moderate inflation in China, it effectively exports that inflation to its customers. (We’ll get back to this shortly.)

Ultimately, China’s goal is to continue to grow their economy as rapidly as possible to insure limited unemployment and increased living standards for its population.  To the extent that a strengthening currency would disrupt that process, it is no longer a welcome sight.  Hence the PBOC’s move to reign in speculation for further CNY appreciation.  By raising the FX reserve requirement, they reduce the amount of onshore USD available (banks must now simply hold onto them) hence counting on the dollar to rise in value accordingly.  Or at the very least, to stop sliding in value.  Consider that China’s long-term stated goal is to further internationalize the renminbi, which means that direct intervention is an awkward method of control.  (International investors tend to shy away from currencies that are subject to the whims of a government or central bank).  This effort to change the FX reserve ratio, thus altering the supply/demand equation is far more elegant and far less intrusive.  Look for this ratio, now set at 7%, to rise further should the renminbi continue to appreciate in value.

As to the inflation story, this time Europe is the setting where prices are rising more rapidly than anticipated.  This morning’s CPI print of 2.0% is the first time it has printed that high since November 2018.  Now, price pressures in Europe are not yet to the level seen in the US, where Friday’s data was clearly an unwelcome surprise, but based on the PMI data releases, with the Eurozone composite rising to a record high of 63.1, and the fact that the latest spate of European lockdowns is coming to an end within the next week or two, it appears that economic activity on the continent is set to grow.  So, the demand side of the equation is moving higher.  meanwhile, the rising value of the CNY has raised input prices for manufacturers as well as retail prices directly.  While margins may be compressed slightly, the fact that Eurozone aggregate savings are at an all-time high suggests that there is plenty of money available to spend on higher priced items.  It is this combination of events that is set to drive inflation.

There is, however, a dichotomy brewing as bond markets, both in the US and Europe, do not seem to be indicating a great deal of concern over higher inflation.  Typically, they are the first market to demonstrate concern, usually forcing a central bank response.  But both here in the States, where Friday’s PCE data resulted in a collective yawn (Treasury yields actually fell 1 basis point) and  this morning in the Eurozone, where across major Eurozone countries, German bunds 0.1 bp rise is the only gain, with yields declining slightly elsewhere, the market is telling us that bond investors agree with the central banks regarding the transitory nature of the current rising inflation.  

Perhaps they are right.  While it is difficult to go to the store, any store, and not see that prices for many items have increased during the post-pandemic period, rising inflation means that those price rises will continue for a long time to come, not a simple one-off jump. Both the Fed and the ECB are certain that supply bottlenecks will be loosened soon, thus describing the temporary nature of their inflation views.  However, it is not as clear to me that is the case.  one of the defining features of the global economy during the past decade has been the adjustment of investment priorities at the corporate level, from investing and building new capacity to repurchasing outstanding shares.  This financialization of the economy is not well prepared to expand actual output.  I fear it may take longer than central banks anticipate to loosen those bottlenecks, which means price pressures are likely to be with us for a lot longer than central banks believe.  

A quick tour of markets this morning shows that regardless of Chinese activity or inflation concerns, risk is ON.  While Asia was mixed (Nikkei -0.2%, Hang Seng +1.1%, Shanghai +0.2%), Europe is a green machine (DAX +1.5%, CAC +0.9%, FTSE 100 +1.1%) after strong PMI data across the board.  US markets are not to be left out of this rally with futures in all three major indices rising by about 0.4% at this hour.

As mentioned above, the bond market is far less interesting this morning.  While Treasury yields have backed up 2bps, Europe is going the other way, save Gilts (+1.1bps).  Clearly there is no inflation concern there right now.  And this is despite the fact that oil prices are much higher (WTI +2.8%, Brent +2.1% and >$70/bbl) along with copper (+4.7%) although wedid see Aluminum slip (-0.6%).  Grains are rising as well as is Silver (+0.75%), although gold, which was higher earlier, is back to flat on the day.

The dollar, this morning, is mixed, with roughly an equal number of currencies higher and lower, although the gains are much greater than the losses.  For instance, NOK (+0.7%) is clearly responding to oil’s rise, while SEK (+0.5%) is benefitting from continued strong PMI data.  However, the rest of the G10 space is +/- 0.2% with the pound (-0.25%) the most noteworthy decliner after concerns were raised that a new Covid variant could delay the reopening of the economy.

In the EMG space, KRW (+0.4%) and THB (+0.3%) have been the best performers as both are thriving amid improving economic performance and anticipation that China’s recovery will help support them further.  Meanwhile, on the flipside, TRY (-0.5%) is the laggard followed by INR (-0.4%) and ZAR (-0.3%).  CNY (-0.2%) slipped in the wake of the PBOC action, while INR is suffering as Covid cases continue to surge.  The same is true in South Africa, and Turkey suffered after higher inflation readings than expected.

Data this week is big starting with ISM and culminating in the payroll report.

TodayConstruction Spending0.5%
 ISM Manufacturing60.9
 ISM Prices Paid89.0
WednesdayFed’s Beige Book 
ThursdayADP Employment650K
 Initial Claims395K
 Continuing Claims3.615M
 ISM Services63.0
FridayNonfarm Payrolls650K
 Private Payrolls600K
 Manufacturing Payrolls25K
 Unemployment Rate5.9%
 Average Hourly Earnings0.2% (1.6% Y/Y)
 Average Weekly Hours34.9
 Participation Rate61.8%
 Factory Orders-0.2%

Source: Bloomberg

In addition to this data we will hear from six more Fed speakers, including Chairman Powell on Friday.  All ears will be tuned toward the tapering debate and how this week’s speakers address the situation.  However, if you consider it, if inflation is transitory and growth is going well, why would they need to taper?  After all, they appear to have achieved the nirvana of  explosive growth with no inflation. 

Needless to say, not everyone believes that story.  However, the one story that is gaining credence everywhere is that the dollar is likely to decline going forward.  That was the consensus view at the beginning of the year, and after a quarter of concern, it appears to be regaining many adherents.  To date, the relationship between the dollar and 10-year Treasury yields has been very strong.  It has certainly appeared that the bond drove the dollar.  However, recent activity has been less conclusive.  I still believe that relationship holds, but will be watching closely.  That said, the dollar does feel heavy these days.

Good luck and stay safe

Adf