Sang the Blues

The President’s finally decided
That Lael and Jay have now divided
The tasks at the Fed
And both of them said
Inflation just won’t be abided

The bond market took in the news
And quickly adjusted its views
Thus, interest rates rose
While gold felt the throes
Of pain as goldbugs sang the blues

By now, we all know that Chairman Powell has been reappointed to his current role as Fed Chair and Governor Brainerd has been elevated to Vice-Chair.  The underlying belief seems to be that the Biden administration was not prepared for what would likely have been a much more difficult confirmation fight to get Brainerd as Chair and decided to husband whatever political capital they still have left to fight for their spending legislation.  Arguably, the most interesting part of the process was that both Powell and Brainerd, in their remarks, indicated that fighting inflation was a key priority.  As Powell said, “We will use our tools both to support the economy and strong labor market, and to prevent higher inflation from becoming entrenched.”  Now that is a wonderful sentiment, and of course, directly in line with the Fed’s Congressional mandate to “promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long term interest rates.”  Alas for them both, the tools necessary for the different pieces of the mandate tend to be opposite in their nature.

However, the market response was clear as to its broad belief that tighter Fed policy is on the horizon.  Between those comments and what we heard last week from Governor Waller, vice-Chair Clarida and St Louis Fed President Bullard, it seems clear that the meeting in December is going to be all about the timing of the tapering.  While the progressive wing of the Democratic party remains steadfast in their belief in the power of MMT to deliver prosperity for all, it appears that the reality on the ground, namely that inflation is exploding higher, has become too big a problem to ignore for President Biden.

Here’s the thing.  The traditional tool for fighting rising inflation is to raise interest rates above the rate of inflation to create positive real yields.  Now, depending on how you define inflation; CPI, PCE, the core version of either, or the trimmed mean version of either, given where all of those measures currently stand, the minimum amount of rate increases is going to be 300 basis points, with a chance that it could be 400 or more.  Now, ask yourself how an economy that is leveraged to the hilt (total debt/GDP > 895%) will respond to interest rates rising by 300 or 400 basis points.  How about the stock market, with its current Shiller CAPE (cyclically adjusted P/E) above 39 compared to a median of 15.86 over the past 150 years?  How do you think that will respond to the interest rate curve rising by 300 or 400 basis points?  The picture is not pretty.

It remains to be seen just how much pain the Fed and the Administration can stand if the Fed actually does start to tighten policy more aggressively in the face of rapidly rising inflation.  Consider that in Q4 2018, the last time the Fed was trying to ‘normalize’ policy by allowing the balance sheet to run down slowly while also raising interest rates, stocks fell 20% and the result was the ‘Powell Pivot’ on Boxing Day that year, where the Chairman explained that tightening policy wasn’t actually that critical at the time and would end immediately.  At that time the same measure of debt/GDP was ‘merely’ 763% and the CAPE was 29.  We have much further to fall today, and I expect that when/if that starts to happen, the Fed will not blithely continue tightening policy to fight inflation.  Remember the idea that the Fed has painted themselves into a corner?  Well, this is the corner in which they have painted themselves.  They need to raise rates to fight inflation but doing so is likely to provoke a severely negative market, and potentially economic, reaction.

Now, while we are all waiting for that shoe to drop, let’s take a look at how markets responded to the news.  The first thing to note is the bond market, where 10-year yields rose 9 bps yesterday and that trend has continued this morning with yields higher by another 2.3bps.  With the 10-year currently yielding 1.65%, all eyes are on the 1.75% level, the peak seen in March, and the level many see as a critical technical level, a break of which could open up much higher yields.  It should not be surprising that we have seen higher yields elsewhere as well, with European sovereigns (Bunds +5.9bps, OATs +5.7bps, Gilts +4.8bps) responding to three factors this morning; the US market movement, better than expected preliminary PMI data across the continent and hawkish comments from both Isabel Schnabel and Klaas Knot, two ECB members. You may recall last week when I described some Schnabel comments as apparently dovish, and a potential capitulation of the remaining hawks on the ECB.  Apparently, I was mistaken.  Today she was much clearer about the risks of inflation being to the upside and that they must be considered.  If the hawks are in flight, bonds have further to decline.

In the equity markets, yesterday’s news initially brought a rally in the US, but by the end of the day, as bond yields rose, the NASDAQ, which is effectively a very long duration asset, fell 1.25%, although the rest of the US market fared far better.  The overnight session saw a more modest reaction with the Nikkei (+0.1%) and Shanghai (+0.2%) edging higher although the Hang Seng (-1.2%) suffered on weaker consumer and pharma stocks.  Europe has rebounded from its worst levels but is still lower (DAX -0.7%, CAC -0.25%, FTSE 100 0.0%) despite (because of?) the PMI data.  I guess hawkish monetary policy trumps good economic data, a harbinger of what may be on the horizon.  At this hour, US futures are little changed, so perhaps there is good news in store.

News that the Biden administration is releasing 30 million barrels of oil from the SPR along with releases by India and South Korea has weighed on oil prices (WTI -1.5%) although NatGas (+4.8%) is not following along for the ride.  Gold (-0.5%) got clobbered yesterday and is down 2.7% from Friday’s closing levels.  Clearly, inflation fighting by the Fed is not seen as a positive.  As to the rest of the metals complex, it is generally higher as expectations grow that demand around the world is going to pick back up.

Finally, in the FX market, the truly notable mover today is TRY (-11.2%!) which appears to be starting to suffer from a true run in the wake of President Erdogan’s praise of the recent interest rate cut and claiming that Turkey is fighting an “economic war of independence.”  It seems he’s losing right now.  Relative to that movement, nothing else seems substantial although MXN (-0.8%) is feeling pressure from declining oil prices while other EMG currencies slid on the broad strong dollar theme.  In the G10, NZD (-0.5%) is the weakest performer as long positions were cut ahead of the RBNZ meeting next week, but the bulk of the bloc is modestly lower as US interest rates continue to power ahead.

On the data front, we see the preliminary PMI data (exp 59.1 Mfg, 59.0 Services) and that’s really it.  Yesterday’s Existing Home Sales were better than expected, but really, today’s markets will continue to be driven by interest rates and views on how the Fed is going to behave going forward.  Taking Powell at his word means that tighter policy is coming which should help the dollar amid a broader risk-off sentiment.  Plan accordingly.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Prices Keep Rising

In Europe, though prices keep rising
The central bank is emphasizing
No rate hikes are near
In this or next year
So, traders, their views, are revising

Meanwhile in the States the reverse
Is true with inflation much worse
Now traders believe
The Fed’s on the eve
Of trying to tighten their purse

It cannot be surprising that inflation remains topic number one in the markets as its existence is driving virtually every narrative.  For instance, the choice for next Fed Chair is seen as having a direct impact on inflation based on the relative dovishness of Lael Brainerd vs. Jay Powell.  Too, as oil prices have risen so sharply over the past year, driving up the price of gas at the pump and inflation in general, the Biden Administration is now exhorting all nations to release oil from their strategic reserves in order to damp down those price pressures.  And what about wages, you may ask?  As per the WSJ this morning, here is the latest on the just agreed wage deal at Deere & Co, whose workers had been on strike for the past 5 weeks,

“Deere workers returning to assembly plants and warehouses will get an immediate 10% raise, and each worker will receive an $8,500 bonus. Additional 5% pay raises will be provided in 2023 and 2025, and lump-sum bonuses amounting to 3% of workers’ annual pay will be awarded in the three other years.
The deal approved Wednesday also will increase the base pay level for Deere’s continuous-improvement program by about 4%, giving workers more weekly pay from the program if their productivity meets the company’s goals. About two-thirds of UAW-represented Deere workers receive production-based compensation on top of their regular wages, according to the company.”

Apparently, the cost of the settlement is on the order of $3.5 billion, a very substantial portion of their forecast 2021 earnings estimates of $5.8 billion.  It strikes that either Deere is going to be raising prices (likely) to offset that margin compression, or its earnings numbers are going to diminish (also likely) thus putting pressure on its stock over time.  Recall, Chairman Powell has been adamant, and we have heard from numerous other Fed speakers as well, that wage inflation is not imminent and thus recent price rises are likely to be temporary.  This appears to be one more data point that makes the Fed story less plausible.

In Europe, however, there is a full-court press by ECB members to convince the investment and trading communities that they are not going to raise rates anytime soon as inflation there, too, is still transitory.  While it should be no surprise that Mario Centeno, the Portuguese central bank head and ECB member is all-in for never raising rates again, it is a huge surprise that Germany’s Isabel Schnabel is talking about the need to avoid premature tightening as deflation risks still haunt the Eurozone.  Her comments come despite CPI in Germany running at 4.5%, the highest since the reunification in the early 90’s and causing significant domestic strife.  If one was looking for a sign that the ECB doves have coopted the hawks to their side, there is no better indication than this!  As such, traders, who had been pricing for a 10bp rise in the deposit rate by the end of 2022 have pushed that view back nearly 12 months.

In sum, the battle between the central bank narratives and reality continues apace with the central banks, remarkably, holding their own in the face of growing evidence to dispute their claims.  And it is this battle that will continue to drive markets and help maintain volatility as each data point or comment has the ability to alter things at the margin.

So, as we look at markets this morning, remember the backdrop remains, Inflation, friend or foe?

Ok, how has risk appetite been affected by the latest news?  Well, US equities all moved lower yesterday and that carried over into Asia with the Nikkei (-0.3%), Hang Seng (-1.3%) and Shanghai (-0.5%) all in the red.  Part of that is because the Chinese property sector continues to weigh on sentiment there with the latest news that several large property companies, including Evergrande, are set to unload stakes in other companies to raise cash.  While these sales will be at great losses, the imperative for the cash is obvious.  Not surprisingly, selling large stakes of publicly held companies tends to weigh on their stock price and thus the market as a whole.

In Europe, the picture is more mixed (DAX +0.1%, CAC +0.2%, FTSE 100 -0.2%) with the UK seeming to suffer from growing concerns the Johnson government may invoke Article 16 from the Brexit deal which would suspend part of the Northern Ireland solution and could quickly evoke retaliation by the EU.  As to US futures, given it appears to be illegal for two consecutive down days in the equity markets, it should not be surprising that futures are pointing higher by between 0.2% and 0.5% at this hour.

Bond market price action is a very clear result of the central bank narrative as European sovereigns have all seen rallies (lower yields) while Treasuries remain under pressure as investors anticipate higher rates in the States.  This morning the 10-year Treasury yield is higher by 1 basis point while in Europe (Bunds -0.9bps, OATs -1.3bps, Gilts -2.7bps) the entire continent has seen demand pick up and yields decline.  Clearly, if the ECB remains full-bore on QE, it will support these prices for a long time.

Turning to the commodity markets, pretty much the entire space is softer today led by oil (-0.5%), gold (-0.2%) and copper (-0.7%).  But there is weakness across the rest of the industrial and precious metal space as well.  In fact, the only gainers on the day are NatGas (+1.8%) which looks very much like a rebound from its recent sharp sell-off, and the agricultural space, where the big 3 products are all firmer by a bit.

Turning to the FX markets, the dollar is under a bit of pressure this morning, which mostly seems like a pull-back from its recent strength.  Technically, it does seem overbought.  In the G10, NZD (+0.7%) is far and away the leading gainer after the RBNZ published their inflation expectations survey at the highest level in a decade and traders began to price in another 25 basis point rate hike at their meeting next week.  However, after that, the rest of the bloc has seen much more modest strength except for NOK (-0.1%) which is suffering from oil’s recent travails, and JPY (-0.1%) which may be reacting to news that the Kishida government is discussing yet more fiscal stimulus, this time to the tune of ¥78.9 trillion.

Emerging market currencies have a more mixed tone with the outlier continuing to be TRY (-2.1%) as the central bank remained true to form and cut its base rate to 15.0% despite runaway inflation.  Next worst is CLP (-0.7%) which has fallen as the finance ministry has stopped its regular dollar sales to maintain cash balances, but pulling support from the currency, and then we see both MXN (-0.55%) and ZAR (-0.5%) suffering on the back of commodity weakness.  On the plus side, HUF (+0.7%) is the big winner after the central bank raised rates by a more than expected 0.70% in their efforts to fight inflation.

On the data front this morning comes weekly Initial (exp 260K) and Continuing (2120K) Claims as well as the Philly Fed (24.0) and Leading Indicators (0.8%).  The Fed speaker onslaught slows a bit today with only four speakers, although despite yesterday’s plethora of speakers, it doesn’t appear we learned anything new.

For now, the broad narrative remains the Fed is going to be the first large central bank to tighten and that is driving the dollar higher.  While today we seem to be pausing for a bit, this story does not yet appear to have run its course.  Hence, I reiterate for payables hedgers, pick your levels and take advantage of the dollar’s strength for now.  orders are an excellent way to manage this risk.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Hawks Now Despair

The imminent news of the day
Is President Joe will convey
His choice for Fed chair
As hawks now despair
Lael Brainerd will soon lead the way

Her bona fides highlight her views
More policy ease she would choose
Inflation? No worry
But she’s in a hurry
For banks to put under the screws

The word from Washington is that President Biden will be announcing his selection for Fed chair imminently.  The very fact that the news was released using that phraseology implies to some (this author included) that we will have a new Fed Chair going forward, Lael Brainerd.  It is widely known that the President interviewed both Brainerd and Powell last week and ostensibly, Ms Brainerd accorded herself quite well.  It is also widely known that the progressive wing of the Democratic Party, which continues to gain sway over policy decisions, hates Chairman Powell and believes that not only would a Chairwoman Brainerd maintain policies to pay for their wish list, but that she would also be much tougher on the banking industry on a regulatory basis.

Of course, the key question is, can Brainerd win approval from a split Senate?  However, it is not clear that Powell could win approval either.  In Brainerd’s case, the vote would almost certainly be a straight party-line vote with Vice-president Harris casting the tiebreaker if necessary, although, it is quite possible that one or two of the very centrist Republican senators vote yea for her.  Powell, on the other hand, has enemies on both sides of the aisle, as there is a contingent of Republicans who believe he is to blame for the current inflation, while we also know there is a contingent of Democrats, led by Senator Warren, who despise him.  In other words, it doesn’t appear either is a slam dunk despite the fact both are currently on the Fed board and have been approved in the past.

Given we already know how markets have responded to the Powell Chairmanship, let us consider how a Chair Brainerd might be viewed.  Whether it is true or not, the current narrative is that Ms Brainerd would be more dovish than Powell, far less likely to complete the current tapering initiative and potentially seek reasons to further expand the Fed’s balance sheet.  If that were to be the case, one would have to be bullish financial assets with both stocks and bonds benefitting from that policy mix.  In addition, given the current inflationary impulse, and the likelihood that a Chair Brainerd continues to believe in the transitory theory, commodity prices are likely to continue their climb higher.  As to the dollar, based on this thesis, the dollar’s recent rise would likely come to an end, as the ongoing decline in real rates would undermine its value proposition.  You may wonder why bond prices would perform well despite rising inflation and the answer is simple, the ongoing QE purchases would support them, and a change in view regarding the timing of any tightening would likely see the short end of the curve rally, driving rates there much lower as well.

Of course, this is speculation regarding speculation of a particular outcome.  However, based on the market’s previous responses to these types of policy stimuli, I would contend they are reasonable.  Regardless, this all depends on any announcement.

One thing to note is that the case for a dollar decline is relatively strong in the event the market perception changes regarding further Fed policy tightness.  The dollar has been benefitting from the perception that the Fed is leading the way among the major central banks, with respect to removing policy ease.  If that perception were to change, so will the trajectory of the greenback.

Turning to the markets this morning, after a lackluster day in the US yesterday, where the major indices barely moved, we saw a mixed performance in Asia (Nikkei +0.1%, Hang Seng +1.3%, Shanghai -0.3%) as China continues to feel downward pressure from the real estate sector there.  Europe, on the other hand, is having a better day (DAX +0.5%, CAC +0.4%, FTSE 100 +0.2%) despite growing concerns over NatGas supplies due to some delays in NordStream 2 approvals.  It seems that a combination of ongoing dovish comments from Madame Lagarde and a new analysis by Capital Economics indicating interest rates in Europe will not rise before 2025, have inspired more risk-taking.  Meanwhile, US futures, which had been lower earlier in the session, have now edged back to essentially unchanged on the day.

In the bond market, yesterday saw some very aggressive selling with Treasury yields rising 5 basis points and pretty much dragging the entire space with them.  This morning, however, things have reversed with Treasury yields (-1.9bps) down along with Bunds (-1.9bps), OATS (-2.0bps) and Gilts (-2.0bps).  As long as there is belief in the QE process, bonds will retain a bid.  As an aside, there was an interesting article yesterday from MNI reporting on the fact that Italy and the other PIGS are seeking a permanent change in EU lending rules to insure that they get more money with less strings, as has been occurring during the Covid inspired emergency.  This has all the signs of a new policy that will be enacted, permanently increasing the amount of support that Southern Europe receives from the EU, and likely, over time to build tensions.  I would look for PIGS spreads vs. Bunds to narrow on this conversation, but it will not help the euro.

As to commodities, this morning most are in the green led by oil (+0.4%) which is continuing yesterday’s late day rally although prices are still much lower on the week.  NatGas (+2.8%) is clearly rising in concert with the European story on Nordstream 2 while gold (+0.6%) and silver (+0.85%) continue to confound by rising sharply alongside the dollar.  Ags are a little softer as are base metals (Al -1.6%, Zn -0.9%), so the message from this market is just not clear.

Turning to the dollar, it is broadly stronger this morning with SEK (-0.3%) and CHF (-0.3%) the laggards in the G10 although GBP (+0.25%) and NOK (+0.2%) are both firmer.  Going backwards, NOK is clearly being supported by oil prices while the pound is benefitting from modestly positive employment news amid a spate of releases there.  As to the losers, there is really no news in either currency which implies the general dollar bullish framework continues to be the key driver.  In the emerging markets, TRY (-1.4%) is today’s worst performer as investors fear further rate cuts despite rapidly rising inflation.  Interestingly, RUB (-0.5%) is also under pressure despite oil’s rebound as concerns over rising inflation in Russia are also impacting investment decisions.  CLP (-0.5%) is the other laggard here as a combination of broad dollar strength and concerns over inflation seem to be undermining the peso.

On the data front, we see Retail Sales (exp 1.5%, 1.0% ex autos) as well as IP (0.9%) and Capacity Utilization (75.9%) this morning.  We get the Fed train rolling with five speakers this morning ranging from the most hawkish (George) to the most dovish (Daly).  However, I believe all eyes will be on the Chairmanship story, not comments from underlings.

The dollar broadly continues to rally with the euro having traded to its lowest level since July 2020 and there is nothing that indicates this trend is going to change soon.  While there are good reasons to expect the dollar to eventually decline, right now, higher is the direction of travel so keep that in mind for your hedging.  However, for those with a longer-term view, looking into 2023 and 2024, current levels may well look attractive if payables are the exposure.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Damnified

The market has turned its attention
To Brainerd’s potential ascension
As Chair of the Fed
Thus, bond bulls imbed
The view QE gets an extension

This adds to the growing divide
Twixt nations who’ve identified
Inflation as bad
From those who are mad
Their laxness have been damnified

The dollar is under some pressure this morning as bonds rally (yields decline) and commodity prices pick up further.  If equity markets were higher this would be a classic risk-on session, alas, that picture is mixed, and anyway, whatever movement there is has been modest at best.  (It’s almost as if equity bulls are getting tired at all-time highs with record valuations.)

What, then, you may ask, is driving today’s price action?  I give you Lael Brainerd PhD, current Fed governor, former Under Secretary of International Affairs at the US Treasury, and the woman most likely to be our next Federal Reserve Chair.  The news broke that President Biden interviewed her for the role and there is a growing belief that in the current political zeitgeist, a Democratic woman favored by the progressive wing of the party will be much more palatable than a Republican man with a mixed track record on issues like FOMC membership trading improprieties.  It doesn’t hurt that she has been an unrequited dove since her appointment by President Obama in 2014, nor that she has been vocal on the need for more stringent regulatory control over the big banks.

As markets are discounting instruments, ostensibly looking forward a number of months to where things will be rather than where they currently sit, there is a growing belief that a Chairwoman Brainerd will be loath to continue tapering asset purchases and far more comfortable allowing inflation to run even hotter in her desire to achieve an even lower unemployment rate.  Hence, the idea that fed funds rate hikes will be coming sooner has been pushed back further.  In the wake of last week’s very surprising BOE meeting, where the widely anticipate rate hike was delayed, and the Fed’s own extremely dovish tapering message, the idea that a change at the Fed will lean even more dovish than now is music to bond bulls’ ears.  And so, as we survey the largest economies, the US seems to be turning more dovish, the Eurozone continues to burnish its dovish bona fides and the BOJ…well the BOJ is unlikely to ever tighten policy again.

However, as we look elsewhere in the world, the story is very different.  Central banks all over, from smaller G10 nations to large EMG group members have clearly articulated that inflation is a major concern with no clear end in sight and that tighter monetary policy is in order.  In the G10, Canada appears on the cusp of tightening, Norway has done so already and promised another hike next month.  New Zealand has ended QE and raised rates, Australia has given up on YCC and Sweden is hinting at a rate rise coming soon.  The noteworthy link is these are all small, relatively open economies with trade a key part of the mix and rising prices are very evident.

But do not forget the EMG space where we have seen far more dramatic moves already and are almost certain to see more of the same going forward.  The Czech Republic hiked rates 125bps last week, far more than expected, while Russia has already raised rates 2.50% in the past 9 months with no signs of slowing down.  Meanwhile, Polish central bankers are previewing more rapid rate hikes despite a larger than expected 75 basis point move last week.  In LATAM, Brazil has already raised rates 5.25% and is in no mood to stop with inflation running above 10% there.  Mexico, too, is up 0.75% from its lows while Chile (+2.25%), Colombia (+0.75%) and Peru (+1.75%) have all reacted strongly to rising inflation.

The point is this dichotomy between the G3 and the rest of the world seems unlikely to continue forever.  There seem to be two likely scenarios to close this interest rate gap, neither of them to be hoped for; either the G3 will finally blink, recognize inflation is real and raise rates far more rapidly than currently expected, or the transitory story will be correct as the economic imbalances will drive a massive crash with economic growth slowing dramatically into a severe recession and no reason to raise interest rates.  In the first case, financial assets will almost certainly suffer greatly while commodities should perform well.  In the second case, everything will suffer greatly with cash regaining its title as king.

Like I said, neither is a pleasant outcome, but neither is about to happen yet either.  So, looking at today’s activity, the growing assumption of a more dovish Fed (remember that vice-chairs Clarida and Quarles will be out within months as well) has led to lower yields and a somewhat softer dollar along with ongoing higher commodity prices.

Equities, however, remain mixed overall, albeit starting to edge higher in the session.  In Asia, the picture was mixed with the Nikkei (-0.75%) falling on the back of yen strength, while the Hang Seng (+0.2%) and Shanghai (+0.2%) both managed to edge higher.  Europe, which had been mixed to lower earlier in the session has started to turn green with the DAX (+0.2%), CAC (+0.3%) and FTSE 100 (+0.1%) all in positive territory. US futures are generally little changed ahead of this morning’s PPI data, (exp 8.6%, 6.8% ex food & energy) but really with the market focusing on tomorrow’s CPI data.

As mentioned, bonds are having a good day, with Treasuries (-3.1bps) falling back to Friday’s low yields, while European sovereigns (Bunds -3.5bps, OATs -3.7bps, Gilts -1.3bps) all rally as well.  In Europe, the curves are flattening pretty aggressively, hardly a vote of confidence in future activity.

Oil prices (+0.45%) are once again firmer although NatGas (-1.6%) has slipped as warm weather in the mid-Atlantic and Midwest states reduces near term heating demand.  Precious metals, which have been rallying nicely of late are little changed on the day but industrial metals (Cu +0.5%, Al +0.1%, Sn +0.3%) are all a bit firmer.  Agricultural products continue to rise as food inflation worldwide continues to grow.

Finally, the dollar, which had been broadly softer earlier in the session on the dovish discussion, has rebounded slightly, although is hardly rocking.  In the G10, the largest moves have been 0.25% in either direction (AUD -0.25%, JPY +0.25%) however, there have been limited stories to drive perceptions.  Given the yen’s recent bout of significant weakness, this appears to be a corrective move rather than a new direction.  As to Aussie, it too seems more technical than fundamental in nature.

Emerging markets, however, have seen more movement led by THB (+0.8%) and KRW (+0.5%) on the news that both economies are reopening amid a decline in Covid infections and the allowance of more inbound tourist traffic.  RUB (+0.45%) seems to be benefitting from oil’s rise as well.  On the downside, ZAR (-0.6%) fell after a report that foreign holdings of South African sovereign debt fell to its lowest level in 10 years.

On the data front, aside from the PPI, we have already received the NFIB Small Business Optimism number at a disappointing 98.2 (exp 99.5) indicating that the growth impulse in the US is still under pressure.  In addition, there are 4 more Fed speakers today after yesterday’s warnings from Vice-chair Clarida that inflation may be a problem going forward.

For now, the dollar seems to be under modest pressure as it consolidates the latest leg of a slow move higher.  If the Fed tapering is going to diminish, the dollar bulls are going to have a harder road to hoe going forward.  As such, much will depend on who is our next Fed chair.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

The Chorus has Grown

T’was only a few months ago
When Kaplan from Dallas said, whoa
The time has arrived
Where growth has revived
And bond buying needs to go slow

Since then, though, the chorus has grown
As seven more members have shown
That they all agree
It’s time for QE
To end and leave markets alone

We continue to hear from more FOMC members that it is time to taper the Fed’s purchases of both Treasuries and mortgage-backed securities.  Last Wednesday, of course, the big news was that Vice-Chairman Richard Clarida came out so hawkishly in his comments, not only calling for tapering bond purchases but also raising rates sooner than the median forecast had anticipated.  Yesterday, three Fed speakers were all on the same page, with Boston’s Eric Rosengren the newest name added to the tapering crew (Bostic and Barkin were already known taperers.)  That takes the count to at least eight (Clarida, Bostic, Barkin, Rosengren, Bullard, Daly, Waller and Kaplan) with the two most hawkish FOMC members, Loretta Mester and Esther George, on the docket for today and tomorrow respectively.  It is not unreasonable, based on their respective histories, to expect both of them to call for tapering as well.  That would make ten of the seventeen members as confirmed supporters of the process.

The question is, will that be enough?  The Fed’s power core for the last several years has been concentrated in four members, Powell, Clarida, Williams and Brainerd.  Of this group, only Clarida has publicly proclaimed it has come time to taper.  And potentially, his importance is diminishing as his term ends within months and he is seen as highly unlikely to be reappointed.  Rather, the talk of the town is that Chairman Powell is also losing fans in the Senate with respect to his reappointment, and that Governor Lael Brainerd is the new leading candidate to become Fed Chair.  As it happens, neither of those two have come out for tapering soon, and in fact, last week, Ms Brainerd was adamant in her belief it was far too early to do so.  The point is, the Fed has never been a democratic institution although it is an extremely political one.  Having a majority of members agree on a view only matters if it is a majority of the right members.  By my count, that is not yet the case.  Perhaps come Jackson Hole in two plus weeks, we will hear the Chairman agree, but tapering is not yet a done deal.

Traders, however, see the world very differently than pundits, and certainly very differently than the Fed itself.  And what has become very clear in the past several days is that traders are increasingly placing bets that tapering is coming…and coming soon.  The combination of all those Fed speakers talking about tapering, the very strong NFP data as well as yesterday’s JOLTs blowout (>10 million jobs are open), and the constant stream of stories about rising wages (just this morning a BBG story on JPM raising salaries to compete to hold onto staff is simply the latest) have been sufficient to logically conclude that it is time for the Fed to begin removing accommodation.  Hence, Treasury yields have backed up nearly 20 basis points from the lows seen last Wednesday morning, the dollar has risen against all its counterparts and the price of oil has fallen by more than 4%.

Looking ahead, the question becomes, is this likely to continue?  Or have we reached a peak?  It is not unreasonable to assume that both George and Mester will call for tapering this week.  It is also not unreasonable to assume that the CPI data tomorrow is going to point to a still rising price environment, whether it ticks slightly higher or lower than last month’s 5.4% headline print.  Any number in that vicinity remains far above the Fed’s average target of 2.0%.  The point is that there is nothing obvious on the horizon that should cause the tapering hawks to back off, at least not until the end of the month.  As such, hedgers need to be prepared for a continuation of the recent price action.

Meanwhile, a look at today’s markets shows that these recent trends remain intact.  While Asian equity markets continue to follow their own drummer (Nikkei +0.25%, Hang Seng +1.25%, Shanghai +1.0%), European bourses continue to struggle (DAX +0.2%, CAC +0.1%, FTSE 100 -0.1%) as do US futures with all three major indices either side of unchanged.  Asia seems to be benefitting from the view that the PBOC is preparing to ease policy further as China responds to the increased lockdowns due to the delta variant of Covid that has been spreading quite rapidly there, in addition to the fact that the Chinese authorities have not named a new target in its seemingly random crackdown of successful companies.

Bond markets, while edging higher today, have been generally losing ground.  So, while Treasury yields are lower by 0.5bps this morning, they are at 1.32%, well off the lows seen last week.  European sovereigns are generally a touch firmer as well, with yields down by between 0.5bps and 1 bp but they, too, have seen yields climb back a bit lately.

Commodity prices, which have been under severe pressure, are rebounding slightly this morning, although this has the appearance of a trading bounce more than a sea change in view.  Commodity prices are likely to be amongst the hardest hit if the Fed really does start to tighten policy.  But this morning, oil (+2.0%) has rebounded nicely although gold (0.0%) has been unable to bounce from yesterday’s massive sell-off.  Copper (+0.65%) is leading base metals modestly higher and ags have bumped up a bit as well.

As to the dollar, right now it is arguably slightly stronger overall, but only just as there are a mix of gainers and losers vs. the greenback.  In the G10 space, the euro (-0.1%) is continuing toward its test of key support at 1.1704, albeit quite slowly.  The entire space, though, is +/- 0.2% or less, which is indicative of position adjustments rather than news driven activity.

EMG currencies are also mixed with KRW (-0.5%) the weakest of the bunch on the back of concerns over the impact of the delta variant as well as equity market outflows by international investors.  PLN (-0.4%) is the next weakest as central bank comments seemed to delay the timing of a mooted rate hike.  On the flip side, TRY (+0.6%) is the leader as Unemployment data there was released at a much lower than expected 10.6%.

Data today showed that Small Business Optimism has suffered lately with the NFIB Index falling to 99.7.  At 8:30 we see Nonfarm Productivity (exp 3.2%) and Unit Labor Costs (+1.0%), although it is unlikely either will have a big market impact.  Arguably, market participants are all waiting for tomorrow’s CPI data for the next big piece of news.

At this point, the dollar’s modest uptrend remains in place and I see no reason to believe that will change.  At least not until we hear differently from Powell or the data turns much worse.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Thrilled…Chilled

The ECB just must be thrilled
Inflation they’ve tried hard to build
Is finally growing
Though Germany’s showing
The growth impulse there has been chilled

The news from the Continent this morning would seem to be pretty good.  GDP, which rose 2.0% Q/Q in Q2 was substantially higher than the forecast 1.5%.  The growth leadership came from Spain (2.8%) and Italy (2.7%) although France (0.9%) was somewhat lackluster and Germany (1.5%) was extremely disappointing, coming in well below expectations.  At the same time, Eurozone CPI rose to 2.2% in July, above both the expected 2.0% print, and the ECB’s target rate.  Given everything we have heard from Madame Lagarde and virtually every ECB speaker over the past months, this must be quite exciting as it is a demonstration of success of their policies.  It seems that buying an additional €3.3 trillion in assets was finally sufficient to drive inflation higher.  (Well, arguably, what that did was drive up the price of virtually every commodity while government lockdowns were able to reduce productive capacity sufficiently to create massive bottlenecks in supply chains forcing prices higher.)  Nonetheless, the ECB gets to take a victory lap as they have achieved their target.

As an aside, you may recall yesterday’s data that showed German CPI rose a shockingly high 3.8%, a level at which the good people of that nation are very likely horrified.  While the Eurozone, as a whole, continues to recover pretty well, there must be a little concern that Germany is facing a period of stagflation, with subpar growth and higher prices.  Of course, this is the worst possible outcome for policymakers as the remedy for the two aspects require opposite policies and thus a choice must be made that will almost certainly result in greater pain for the economy initially.  Forty years ago, Fed Chair Paul Volcker was able to withstand the political heat when making this decision, but I fear there is not a central banker in the seat who could do so today.

Perhaps the most disappointing aspect of all this is that European equity markets are all in the red, with not a single one responding positively to the data.  Ironically, Spain’s IBEX (-1.0%) is the laggard, despite Spain’s top of the list growth.  Then comes the DAX (-0.8%) and the CAC (-0.25%).  For good measure, the FTSE 100 (-0.9%) is following suit although its GDP data won’t be published for two more weeks.  Arguably, despite this positive news, the ongoing spread of the delta variant seems to be undermining both confidence and actual activity at some level.

Of course, European markets tend to take their cues from what happens in Asia before they open, and last night was another risk-off session there with the Nikkei (-1.8%), Hang Seng (-1.35%) and Shanghai (-0.4%) all sliding.  There are two stories here, one Japanese and one Chinese.  From Japan, the issue is clearly the resurgence of Covid as the recently imposed emergency lockdown has been extended further amid a spike in daily cases to near 10K, higher than the peaks seen in both January and May of this year.  The rapid spread of the disease has policymakers there quite flustered and investors are beginning to show their concern.

China, on the other hand, assures us that they have no Covid problems, rather markets there are suffering over policy decisions.  One observation that might be made is that the government is enhancing regulations on very specific segments of the economy in order to achieve their stated goals from the most recent 5-year plan.  So, education is very clearly seen as critical, far too important for capitalism to have any influence, and I would expect that this industry sector will ultimately privatize and turn into the suggested non-profit organizations.  On the tech side, China is all about hardware type tech, and will do all they can to support companies in that space.  However, companies like Didi, AliBaba and Tencent don’t produce anything worthwhile, they simply consume resources to provide retail services, none of which lead toward Xi Jinping’s ultimate goals.  As such, they are likely to find increasing restrictions on what they do in order to reduce their influence on the economy.

And as I hinted at the other day, there appears to be growing concern that the real estate bubble that exists in China has been a key feature of their demographic problems.  Couples are less likely to have children if they cannot afford to buy a house, and the damage from China’s one-child policy will take generations to repair, although that is a key focus of the government.  As such, do not be surprised if real estate firms come under pressure with respect to things like restrictions on margins and pricing as the government tries to deflate that bubble.  This opens the possibility that yet another sector of the Chinese equity market is going to come under further pressure.  To the extent that Asian markets set the tone for the global day, that does not bode well for the near future.

Interestingly, despite a lackluster performance by the European and Asian equity markets (and US futures, which are all lower this morning), the bond markets are not exactly on fire.  While it is true that Treasury yields have slipped 2.5bps, European sovereigns are either side of unchanged today, with nothing moving more than 0.3bps in either direction.  I would have expected a bit better performance given the equity risk-off signal.

Commodity markets are generally a bit softer with oil (-0.2%) slipping a bit although it has recovered almost all of its losses from two weeks ago and sits at $73.50/bbl.  Gold, after a huge rally yesterday is unchanged this morning, while base metals are mixed (Cu -0.2%, Al +1.4%, Sn +0.15%).  Finally, ags are all softer this morning as weather conditions in key growing areas have improved lately.

Lastly, the dollar can best be described as mixed, with NOK (-0.4%) and AUD (-0.35%) the laggards amid softer oil and  commodity prices while EUR (+0.1%) and CHF (+0.1%) have both edged higher on what I would contend is the ongoing decline in real US interest rates.

Emerging market currencies have performed far better generally with TRY (+0.6%) and PHP (+0.6%) the leaders although both EEMEA and other APAC currencies have performed well.  The lira responded to the Turkish central bank raising its inflation forecast thus implying rates would remain higher there for the foreseeable future.  Meanwhile, the peso seemed to benefit from the idea that the renewed covid lockdown would reduce its balance of payments issues by reducing its trade deficit.  On the other side of the ledger was KRW (-0.3%) which continues to suffer from the uncertainty over Chinese business activity.

On the data front today, we get the Fed’s key inflation reading; Core PCE (exp 3.7%) as well as Personal Income (-0.3%), Personal Spending (0.7%), Chicago PMI (64.1) and Michigan Sentiment (80.8).  Clearly all eyes will be on the PCE number, where a higher print will likely encourage more taper talk.  However, if it is below expectations, look for a very positive market response.  We also hear from two Fed speakers, Bullard and Brainerd, the former who has turned far more hawkish and has been calling for a taper, while Ms Brainerd is not nearly ready for such action.  And in the end, Brainerd matters more than Bullard for now.

I expect the market will take its cues from the PCE data, with a higher print likely to undermine the dollar while a softer print could well see a bit of a rebound from the past several sessions’ weakness.

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe
Adf

Likely Too Soon

The narrative now seems to be
That tapering’s what we will see
The meeting in June
Is likely too soon
By autumn, though, Jay may agree

tran∙si∙to∙ry
adjective
not permanent.
“transitory periods of medieval greatness”

per∙sist∙ent
adjective
continuing to exist or endure over a prolonged period.
“persistent rain will affect many areas”

Forgive my pedanticism this morning but I couldn’t help but notice the following comment from former NY Fed President William Dudley.  “The recent spike in US inflation is likely transitory for now – but it could become more persistent in the coming years as more people return to work.”  Now, I don’t know about you, but I would describe the words ‘transitory’ and ‘persistent’ as antonyms.  And, of course, we all know that the Fed has assured us that recent rises in inflation are transitory.  In fact, they assure us multiple times each day.  And yet, here is a former FOMC member, from one of the most important seats, NY Fed president, explaining that this transitory phenomenon could well be persistent.  If you ever wondered why the term ‘Fedspeak’ was coined, it was because ‘doublespeak’ was already taken by George Orwell in his classic ‘1984’.  Apparently, one does not regain one’s intellectual honesty when leaving a government institution where mendacity is the coin of the realm.

However, let us now turn to today’s main story; tapering.  The discussion on tapering of QE continues apace and the market is settling on a narrative that the Fed will reduce the amount of its monthly purchases by the end of the year.  Certainly, there are a minority of Fed governors who want to get the conversation going in earnest, with St Louis’ James Bullard the latest.  And this idea fits smoothly with the concept that the US economy is expanding rapidly with price pressures, even if transitory, building just as rapidly.  Just yesterday, Elon Musk compared the shortage in microprocessors needed to build Teslas to the shortage of toilet paper at the beginning of the pandemic last year.  (As an aside, one, more permanent, result of that TP shortage is that prices in my local Shop-Rite are significantly higher today than pre-pandemic, at least 40% higher, even though the shortage was transitory no longer persists.)  

The point is that the combination of shortages of specific items, bottlenecks in shipping and dramatically increasing demand fed by massive government stimulus programs are all feeding into higher prices, i.e. inflation.  Even the most committed central bank doves around the world have noticed this situation, and while most are unwilling to alter policy yet, the discussion is clearly beginning.  Last night, the RBA omitted their promise “to undertake further bond purchases to assist with progress goals,” despite maintaining their YCC target of 0.10% for 3-year AGB’s.  As well, yesterday Fed Governor Lael Brainerd, arguably the most dovish FOMC member, explained, “while the level of inflation in my near-term outlook has moved somewhat higher, my expectation for the contour of inflation moving back towards its underlying trend in the period beyond the reopening remains broadly unchanged.”  Apparently, Lael attended the Alan Greenspan school of Fedspeak.

Add it all up and you get a market that is convinced that tapering is visible on the horizon and will begin before Christmas 2021.  While I don’t doubt it is appropriate, as I believe inflation is not actually transitory, I am also skeptical that the Fed is ready to alter its policy until it sees data showing the employment situation has reached its newly formed goals.  I fear that, as usual, the Fed will be late to the tightening party and the outcome will be a far more dramatic policy reversal and much bigger market impact (read stock market decline) than desired.

How, you may ask, has this impacted markets today?  The big winner has been the dollar, which is firmer against virtually all its counterparts this morning.  For instance, NZD (-0.5%) is the laggard in the G10 space after RBNZ comments explaining the balance sheet will remain large for a long time.  In other words, while they may stop buying new securities, they will replace maturing debt and so maintain a significant presence in their bond market.  Meanwhile, CHF (-0.5%) is under pressure after SNB Vice-president Zurbruegg explained that the bank’s expansive monetary policy, consisting of NIRP and FX intervention is still necessary.  The rest of the bloc is also softer, but not quite to that extent with AUD (-0.35%) under pressure from commodity price pullbacks and JPY (-0.35%) suffering after odd comments by a BOJ member that they would respond to any untoward JPY strength in the event the Fed does begin to taper.

Emerging market currencies have also been under pressure all evening led by TRY (-0.9%) and KRW (-0.65%).  The latter’s movement was a clear response to the PBOC setting its fixing rate for a weaker CNY than the market had anticipated, thus opening the way for a weaker KRW.  Given the fact that South Korea both competes aggressively in some markets with Chinese manufacturers, and has China as its largest market, the intricacies of the KRW/CNY relationship are many and complex.  But in a broad dollar on scenario, it is not too surprising to see both currencies weaken, and given KRW’s recent strong performance, it had much further to fall.  But currency weakness in this bloc is across EEMEA, APAC and LATAM, which tells us it is much more about the dollar than about any particular idiosyncratic stories.

In the rest of the markets, equities were mixed in Asia (Nikkei +0.45%, Hang Seng -0.6%, Shanghai -0.75%) while Europe is green, but only just (DAX +0.15%, CAC +0.3%, FTSE 100 +0.1%).  US futures are either side of unchanged at this hour as the market tries to digest the tapering story.  Remember, much of the valuation premium that exists in the US is predicated on lower forever interest rates.  If they start to climb, that could easily spell trouble.

Speaking of interest rates, they have edged lower in the session with 10-year Treasury yields down 0.3bps while in Europe, yields have fallen a bit faster (bunds -1.4bps, OATs -1.5bps, gilts -1.2bps).  Certainly, there is no keen inflationary scare in this market as of yet.

Interestingly, oil prices continue to rise, despite the stronger dollar, with WTI (+1.0%) trading to new highs for the move.  But the rest of the commodity space finds itself under pressure this morning as the dollar’s strength takes its toll.  Precious metals are softer (Au -0.25%, Ag -0.5%) as are base metals (Cu -0.8%, Al -0.5%) although the ags are holding up.  But if dollar strength is persistent, I expect that commodity prices will remain on the back foot.

On the data front, today brings only the Fed’s Beige Book this afternoon, as the ADP employment number is delayed due to the Memorial Day holiday Monday.  As well, we hear from four Fed speakers, including three, Harker, Kaplan and Bostic, who have been in the tapering camp for several weeks now.  However, until we start to see the Treasury market sell off more aggressively, I think tapering will be a nice talking point, but not yet deemed a foregone conclusion.  As such, that link between Treasury yields and the dollar remains solid, with the dollar likely to respond well to further discussions of tapering and higher yields.  We shall see if that is what comes to pass regardless of the current narrative.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf




Far From our Goals

Said Brainerd, “we’re far from our goals”
Of helping to max out payrolls
So, patience is needed
Else we’ll be impeded
And Biden might drop in the polls
Thus, we must maintain the controls

There is a single hymnal at the Marriner Eccles Building in Washington, DC and every FOMC member continues to read from that gospel.  In short, the current view is that things are getting better, but there is still a long way to go before the economy can continue to grow without Fed support, therefore, the current policy mix is appropriate and will be for a long time to come.  On the subject of inflation, when it was even mentioned by any of the six Fed speakers yesterday, it was pooh-poohed as something of no concern, widely recognized that it will rise in the short-term, but universally expected to be ‘transitory’.  I don’t know about you, but it certainly makes me feel much better that a group of 6 individuals, each extremely well-paid with numerous perks accorded to their office, and each largely out of touch with the world in which the rest of us live, are convinced that they can see the future.  After all, the Fed’s forecasting record is unparalleled…in its futility.

However, that is the situation as it currently stands, the Fed remains adamant that there is no need to taper its QE program, no need to raise interest rates anytime soon and that the current policy mix will address what ails the US economy.

The problem with this attitude is that it seems to ignore the reality on the ground.  Exhibit A is the news today that average gasoline prices across the nation crossed above $3.00/gallon for the first time since 2014.  In fairness to the Fed, some portion of this is a result of the shutdown of the Colonial Pipeline, where a number of states on the East Coast find themselves with no gasoline to pump.  But do not be mistaken, as I’m sure everyone is aware, gasoline prices have been rising sharply for the past 6 months, at least.  At issue now is just how much higher they can go before having more deleterious effects on the economy, let alone on many individuals’ personal situation.

It is not just gasoline, but pretty much all commodities that have been rallying sharply since the pandemic induced lows of April 2020.  Since its nadir, for example, the GSCI has more than doubled, but that merely brings it back to its level of the prior five years, when there was no concern over commodity driven inflation.  The difference this time is that due to a combination of the Covid-induced breakdown in supply chains and a massive reduction in Capex by the mining and extraction sector, the prospect of equilibrium in this space in the near term is limited.  There is a growing belief that we are embarking on a so-called commodity super-cycle.  This would be defined as a long-term period where commodity demand outstrips supply and commodity prices rise continually, generally doubling or tripling from the previous lows.

This discussion is an excellent prelude to this morning’s CPI release, where the analyst community is looking for a 0.2% M/M rise which translates into a 3.6% Y/Y rise.  Ex food and energy, expectations are for 0.3% M/M and 2.3% Y/Y.  The sharp rise in the annual headline rate is exactly what the Fed has been discussing as base effects, given this time last year, the economy was seeing price deflation on the back of the economy’s shutdown, with transportation, hospitality and leisure prices collapsing due to a forced lack of demand.  As such, the market seems entirely prepared for a very large number.  From my vantage point, the Y/Y number is not so important today, but the M/M number is.  Consider that a 0.3% reading, if strung over twelve months, comes to an annual inflation rate of more than 3.6%, considerably above the Fed’s target.

We continue to hear one Fed speaker after another explain that while the economy is improving, they must still maintain ultra-easy monetary policy.  We continue to hear them explain that any inflation readings will be transitory.  And maybe they are correct.  However, if they are not, and inflation embeds itself more deeply into the national psyche, the Fed will find themselves in an unenviable position; either raise interest rates to combat inflation (you know, the tools they have) and watch the financial markets fall sharply; or let inflation run hot, and allow the dollar to fall sharply while eventually watching financial markets fall sharply.  Talk about a Hobson’s Choice!

Now to markets, which after yesterday’s selloff in the US equity space, albeit with a close that was well off session lows, we saw a mixed Asian session (Nikkei –1.6%, Hang Seng +0.8%, Shanghai +0.6%) and are seeing a similar performance in Europe (DAX +0.25%, CAC 0.0%, FTSE 100 +0.35%).  US futures, on the other hand, are uniformly pointing lower at this hour, down between 0.35% (DOW) and 0.6% (NASDAQ).

Bond markets, after yesterday’s worldwide rout, have seen a small rebound with Treasury yields edging lower by 0.5bps, although still hanging around the 1.60% level.  There is an overwhelming consensus that 10-year Treasury yields are set to rise substantially, but so far, that has just not been the case.  European markets are seeing yield declines of between 1bp (Bunds and OATs) and 2bps (Gilts).  Today brings two critical data points, first the US CPI data shortly and then the US 10-year Treasury auction will be closely scrutinized to determine if there is a crack in demand for our seemingly unlimited supply of Treasury paper.

Commodity prices are broadly higher led by oil (WTI +1.3%) with base metals continuing to climb as well (Cu +0.7%, Al +0.5%, Ni +1.0%).  The same cannot be said of the precious metals space, though, with both gold (-0.2%) and silver (-0.8%) seeing some selling on profit taking.

The dollar is in fine fettle this morning, rallying against 9 of its G10 counterparts with only CAD (+0.1%) holding its own.  NZD (-0.6%) and AUD (-0.5%) are in the worst shape as both respond to weaker than expected Chinese monetary growth which implies that the Chinese economy may not be growing as quickly as previously thought.  However, the European currencies are all modestly softer as well on worse than expected Eurozone IP data (0.1% vs. 0.8% expected).  EMG currencies are also under pressure this morning, with the APAC currencies feeling it the worst.  KRW (-0.45%), THB (-0.4%) and SGD (-0.25%) are leading the way lower, also on the back of the Chinese monetary data.  Interestingly, TWD (-0.03%) is barely changed despite an equity market rout (TAIEX -4.1%) and concerns about growth in China.

Other than the CPI data and the Treasury auction, there is no other news or data.  Well, that’s if you exclude the continuing parade of Fed speakers, with today’s roster of 4 positively sparse compared to what we have seen lately.  The one thing we know is that they are unlikely to change their tune.

Which brings us back to the 10-year Treasury.  It continues to be the market driver in my view, with higher yields leading to a stronger dollar and vice versa.  I suspect that this morning’s CPI data may print higher than forecast, but it is not clear to me if that will truly have an impact.  My bigger fear is that broad risk appetite may be waning given the leadership of the equity rally has been suffering of late.  In this situation, we could easily go back to a classical risk-off framework of lower stocks, higher bond prices (lower yields) and a stronger dollar.  Just beware.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf