Spring Remains Distant

From Brussels, a letter was sent
To London, with which the intent
Was telling the British
The EU’s not skittish
So, don’t try, rules, to circumvent

The pound is under pressure this morning, -0.6%, after it was revealed that the EU is inaugurating legal proceedings against the UK for beaching international law.  The details revolve around how the draft Internal Market Bill, that has recently passed through the House of Commons, is inconsistent with the Brexit agreement signed last year.  The specific issue has to do with the status of Northern Ireland and whether it will be beholden to EU law or UK law, the latter requiring a border be erected between Ireland, still an EU member, and its only land neighbor, Northern Ireland, part of the UK.  Apparently, despite the breathless headlines, the EU sends these letters to member countries on a regular basis when they believe an EU law has been breached.  As well, it apparently takes a very long time before anything comes of these letters, and so the UK seems relatively nonplussed over the issue.  In fact, given that the House of Lords, which is not in Tory control, is expected to savage the bill, it remains quite unclear as to whether or not this will be anything more than a blip on the Brexit trajectory.

However, what it did highlight was that market participants have grown increasingly certain that an agreement will be reached, hence the pound’s recent solid performance, and that this new wrinkle was enough for weak hands to be scared from their positions.  At this point, almost everything that both sides are doing publicly is simply intended to achieve negotiating leverage as time runs out on reaching a deal.  Alas for Boris, I feel that his biggest enemy is Covid, not Brussels, as the EU is far more concerned over the pandemic impact and how to respond there.  At the margin, while a hard Brexit is not preferred, the fear of the fallout in Brussels has clearly diminished, and so the opportunity for a hard Brexit to be realized has risen commensurately.  And the pound will fall further if that is the outcome.  The current thinking is there are two weeks left for a deal to be reached so expect more headlines in the interim.

The Tankan painted
A picture in black and white
Spring remains distant

Meanwhile, it is still quite cloudy in the land of the rising sun, at least as described by the Tankan surveys.  While every measure of the surveys, both small and large manufacturing and non-manufacturing indices, improved from last quarter by a bit, every one of them fell short of expectations.  The implication is that PM Suga has his work cut out for him in his efforts to get economic activity back up and running.  You may recall that CPI data on Monday showed deflation remains the norm, and weak sentiment is not going to help the situation there.  At the same time, capital flows continue to show significant foreign outflows in both stock and bond markets there.  It was only two weeks ago that the JPY (-0.1% today) appeared set to break through the 104 level with the dollar set to test longer term low levels.  Of course, at that time, the market narrative was all about the dollar falling sharply.  Well, both of those narratives have evolved, and if capital continues to flow out of Japan, it is hard to make the case for yen strength.  Remember, the BOJ is never going to be seen as relatively tighter in its policy stance, so a firmer yen would require other drivers.  Right now, they are not in evidence.

And frankly, those are the two most interesting stories in the market today.  Arguably, the one other theme that has gained traction is the rise in layoffs by large corporations in the US.  Yesterday nearly 40,000 were announced, which is at odds with the idea that the economy here is going to rebound sharply.  On an individual basis, it is easy to understand why any given company is reducing its workforce in the current economic situation.  Unfortunately, the picture it paints for the immediate future of the economy writ large is one of significant short-term pain.  Given this situation, it is also easy to understand why so many are desperate for Congress to agree a new stimulus bill in order to support the economy.  And it’s not just elected officials who are desperate, it is also the entire bullish equity thesis.  Because, if the economy turns sharply lower, at some point, regardless of Fed actions, equity markets will reprice lower as well.

But that is not happening today.  As a matter of fact, equities are looking pretty decent, yet again.  China is closed for a series of holidays, but the overnight session saw strength in Australia (+1.0%) although the Nikkei (0.0%) couldn’t shake off the Tankan blues.  Europe, however, is all green led by the FTSE 100 (+0.9% despite that letter) with the CAC (+0.65%) and DAX (+0.1%) also positive.  US futures are all pointing higher with gains ranging from 0.8%-1.25%.

Bond markets actually moved yesterday, at least a little bit, with 10-year Treasury yields now at 0.70%.  Yesterday saw a 3.5 basis point move with the balance occurring overnight.  Given yesterday’s equity rally, this should not be that surprising, but given the recent remarkable lack of movement in the bond market, it still seems a bit odd.  European bond markets are behaving in a full risk on manner as well, with havens like Bunds, OATS and Gilts all seeing yields edge higher by about 1bp, while Italy and Greece are seeing increased demand with modestly lower yields.

As to the dollar overall, despite the pound’s (and yen’s) weakness, it is the dollar that is under pressure today against both G10 and EMG currencies.  Today’s leader in the G10 clubhouse is NOK (+0.55%) which is a bit odd given oil’s 1.0% decline during the session.  But after that, the movement has been far less enthusiastic, between 0.1% and 0.3%, which feels more like dollar softness than currency strength.

EMG currencies, however, are showing some real oomph this morning with the CE4 well represented (HUF +1.15%, PLN +0.85%) as well as MXN (+1.05%) and INR (+0.85%).  The HUF story revolves around the central bank leaving its policy rate on hold after a surprise 0.15% rise last week.  This was taken as a bullish sign by investors as the central bank continues to focus on above-target inflation there.  Meanwhile, inflation in Poland rose 3.2% in a surprise, above their target and has encouraged views that the central bank may need to tighten policy further, hence the zloty’s strength today.  The India story revolves around the government not increasing their borrowing needs, despite their response to Covid, which helped drive government bond investor inflows and rupee strength.  Finally, the peso seems the beneficiary of the overall risk-on attitude as well as expectations for an uptick in foreign remittances, which by definition are peso positive.

On the data front, yesterday saw ADP surprise higher by 100K, at 749K.  As well, Chicago PMI, at 62.4, was MUCH stronger than expected.  This morning brings Initial Claims (exp 850K), Continuing Claims (12.2M), Personal Income (-2.5%), Personal Spending (0.8%), Core PCE (1.4%) and ISM Manufacturing (56.4).  US data, despite the layoff story, has clearly been better than expected lately, and this can be seen in the increasingly positive expectations for much of the data.  While European PMI data this morning was right on the button, the numbers remain lower than those seen in the US.  In addition, the second wave is clearly hitting Europe at this time, with Covid cases growing more rapidly there than back in March and April when it first hit.  As much as many people want to hate the dollar and decry its debasement (an argument I understand) it is hard to make the case that currently, the euro is a better place to be.  While the dollar is soft today, I believe we are much closer to the medium-term bottom which means hedgers should be considering how to take advantage of this move.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Prices Keep Falling

Suga-san’s ascent
Has not altered the landscape
Prices keep falling

The distance between stated economic goals and actual economic outcomes remains wide as the economic impact of the many pandemic inspired government ordered lockdowns continues to be felt around the world.  The latest example comes from Japan, where August’s CPI readings fell, as expected, to 0.2% Y/Y at the headline level while the ex-fresh food measure (the one the BOJ prefers) fell to -0.4%.  Although pundits in the US have become fond of ridiculing the Fed’s efforts at raising inflation to 2.0%, especially given their inability to do so since defining that level as stable prices in 2012, to see real ineptitude, one must turn east and look at the BOJ’s track record on inflation.  In the land of the rising sun, the favored measure of CPI ex-fresh food has averaged 0.5% for the last 35 years!  The point is the Fed is not the first, nor only, central bank to fail in its mission to generate inflation via monetary policy.

(As an aside, it is an entirely different argument to discuss the merits of seeking to drive inflation higher to begin with, as there is a strong case to be made that limited inflation is a necessary condition for economic success at the national level.)  But 2.0% inflation has become the global central banking mantra. And though the favored inflation measure across nations often differs, the one key similarity is that every G10 nation, as well as many in the emerging markets, has been unable to achieve their goal.  The few exceptions are those nations like Venezuela, Argentina and Turkey that have the opposite problem, soaring inflation and no ability to control that.

But back to Japan, where decades of futility on the inflation front have put paid to the idea that printing money is all that is needed to generate rising prices.  The missing ingredient for all central banks is that they need to pump money into places that result in lending and spending, not simply asset purchases, or those excess funds will simply sit on bank balance sheets with no impact.

Remember, GDP growth, in the long run, comes from a combination of population growth and productivity growth.  Japan has the misfortune, in this case, of being one of the few nations on earth where the population is actually shrinking.  It is also the oldest nation, meaning the average and median age is higher there than any other country on earth (except Monaco which really doesn’t matter in this context).  The point here is that as people age, they tend to consume less stuff, spending less money and therefore driving less growth in the economy.  It is these two factors that will prevent Japan from achieving a much higher rate of inflation until such time as the country’s demographics change.  A new Prime Minister will not solve this problem, regardless of what policies he supports and implements.

Keeping this in mind, the idea that Japan is far more likely to cope with ongoing deflation rather than rising inflation, if we turn our attention to how that impacts the Japanese yen, we quickly realize that the currency is likely to appreciate over time.  Dusting off your Finance 101 textbooks, you will see that inflation has the side effect of weakening a nation’s currency, which quickly feeds into driving further inflation.  Adding to this impact is if the nation runs a current account deficit, which is generally the case when inflation is high and rising.  Harking back to Argentina and Venezuela, this is exactly the behavior we see in those economies.  The flip side of that, though, is that deflation should lead to a nation’s currency appreciating.  This is especially so when that nation runs a current account surplus.  And of course, you cannot find a nation that fits that bill better than Japan (well maybe Switzerland).  The upshot of this is, further JPY appreciation seems to be an extremely likely outcome.  Therefore, as long as prices cease to rise in Japan, there will be upward pressure on the currency.  We have seen this for years, and there is no reason for it to stop now.

Of course, as I always remind everyone, FX is a relative game, so it matters a great deal what is happening in both nations on a relative basis.  And in this case, when comparing the US, where prices are rising and the current account has been in deficit for the past two decades, and Japan, where prices are falling and the current account has been in surplus for the past four decades, the outcome seems clear.  However, the market is already aware of that situation and so the current level of USDJPY reflects that information.  However, as we look ahead, either negative surprises in Japanese prices or positive surprises in the US are going to be important drivers in the FX market.  This is likely to be seen in interest rate spreads, which have narrowed significantly since March when the Fed cut rates aggressively but have stabilized lately.  If the Fed is, in fact, going to put forth the easiest monetary policy around, then a further narrowing of this spread is quite possible, if not likely, and further JPY appreciation will ultimately be the result.  This is what we have seen broadly since the middle of 2015, a steady trend lower in USDJPY, and there is no reason to believe that is going to change.

Whew!  That turned out to be more involved than I expected at the start.  So let me quickly survey the situation today.  Risk is under modest pressure generally, although there were several equity markets that put in a good performance overnight.  After a weak US session, Asia saw modest gains in most places (Nikkei +0.2%, Hang Seng +0.5%) although Shanghai (+2.1%) was quite strong.  European markets are far less convinced of the positives with the DAX (+0.4%) and CAC (-0.1%) not showing much movement, and some of the fringe markets (Spain -1.3%) having a bit more difficulty.  US futures are mixed, although the top performer is the NASDAQ (+0.4%).

Bond markets continue to trade in a tight range, as central bank purchases offset ongoing issuance by governments, and we are going to need some new news or policies to change this story.  Something like an increase in the ECB’s PEPP program, or the BOE increasing its purchases will be necessary to change this, as the Fed is already purchasing a huge amount of paper each month.

And finally, the rest of the FX market shows that the dollar is broadly, but not universally under pressure.  G10 activity shows that NZD (+0.4%) is the leader, although JPY (+0.3%) is having another good day, while NOK (-0.25%) is the laggard.  But as can be seen by the modest movements, and given the fact it is Friday, this is likely position adjustments rather than data driven.

In the EMG space, KRW (+1.2%) was the biggest gainer overnight, which was hard to explain based on outside influences.  The KOSPI rose 0.25%, hardly a huge rally, and interest rates were unchanged.  The best estimate here is that ongoing strength in China is seen as a distinct positive for the won, as South Korea remains highly dependent on the mainland for economic activity.  Beyond the won, though, while there were more gainers than losers, the size of movement was not that significant.

On the data front, speaking of the current account, we see the Q2 reading this morning (exp -$160.0B), as well as Leading Indicators (1.3%) and Michigan Sentiment (75.0).  We also hear from three Fed speakers (Bullard, Bostic and Kashkari) but having just heard from Powell on Wednesday, it seems unlikely they will give us any new information. Rather, today appears to be a consolidation day, with marginal movements as weak positions get unwound into the weekend.

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe
Adf

Casting a Pall

The Chairman explained to us all
Deflation is casting a pall
On future advances
While NIRP’s what enhances
Our prospects throughout the long haul

The bond market listened to Jay
And hammered the long end all day
The dollar was sold
While buyers of gold
Returned, with aplomb, to the fray

An announcement to begin the day; I will be taking my mandatory two-week leave starting on Monday, so the next poetry will be in your inbox on September 14th.

Ultimately, the market was completely correct to focus all their attention on Chairman Powell’s speech yesterday because he established a new set of ground rules as to how the Fed will behave going forward.  By now, most of you are aware that the Fed will be targeting average inflation over time, meaning that they are happy to accept periods of higher than 2.0% inflation in order to make up for the last eight years of lower than 2.0% inflation.

In Mr. Powell’s own words, “…our new statement indicates that we will seek to achieve inflation that averages 2 percent over time. Therefore, following periods when inflation has been running below 2 percent, appropriate monetary policy will likely aim to achieve inflation moderately above 2 percent for some time.”

You may have noticed that Powell adds no specificity to this new policy, with absolutely no definition of ‘some time’ nor what ‘moderately above’ means.  But there was more for us, which many may have missed because it was a) subtle, and b) not directly about inflation.

“In addition, our revised statement says that our policy decision will be informed by our “assessments of the shortfalls of employment from its maximum level” rather than by “deviations from its maximum level” as in our previous statement.”

This is the rationale for their new willingness to let inflation run hot, the fact that the benefits of full employment outweigh those of stable prices.  The lesson they learned from the aftermath of the GFC in 2008-9 was that declining unemployment did not lead to higher general inflation.  Of course, they, along with many mainstream economists, attribute that to the breakdown of the Phillips curve relationship.  But the Phillips curve was not about general inflation, rather it was about wage inflation.  Phillips noted the relationship between falling unemployment and rising wages in the UK for the century from 1861-1957.  In fact, Phillips never claimed there was a causality, that was done by Paul Samuelson later and Samuelson extended the idea from wage to general inflation.  Eventually Milton Friedman created a theoretical underpinning for the claim unemployment and general inflation were inversely related.

Arguably, the question must be asked whether the labor market situation in the UK a century ago was really a valid model for the current US economy.  As it turns out, the time of Downton Abbey may not be a viable analogy.  Who would’ve thought that?

Regardless, Powell made it clear that with this new framework, the Fed has more flexibility to address what they perceive as any problems in the economy, and they will use that flexibility as they see fit.  In the end, the market response was only to be expected.

Starting with the bond market, apparently, I wasn’t the only one who thought that owning a fixed income instrument yielding just 1.4% for 30 years when the Fed has explicitly stated they are going to seek to drive inflation above 2.0% for some time was a bad idea.  The Treasury curve steepened sharply yesterday with the 10-year falling one point (yield higher by 6.5bps) while the 30-year fell more than three points and the yield jumped by more than 10 basis points.  My sense is we will continue to see the back end of the Treasury curve sell off, arguably until the 30-year yields at least 2.0% and probably more.  This morning the steepening is continuing, albeit at a bit slower pace.

As to the dollar, it took a while for traders to figure out what they should do.  As soon as Powell started speaking, the euro jumped 0.75%, but about 5 minutes into the speech, it plummeted nearly 1.2% as traders were uncertain how to proceed.  In the end, the euro recouped its losses slowly during the rest of the day, and has risen smartly overnight, up 0.7% as I type.  In fact, this is a solid representation of the entire FX market.  Essentially, FX traders and investors have parsed the Chairman’s words and decided that US monetary policy is going to remain uber easy for as far in the future as they can imagine.  And if that is true, a weaker dollar is a natural response.  So, today’s broad-based dollar decline should be no surprise.  In fact, it makes no sense to try to explain specific currency movements as the dollar story is the clear driver.

However, that does not mean there is not another important story, this time in Japan.

Abe has ulcers
Who can blame him with Japan’s
Second wave rising?

PM Shinzo Abe has announced that he has ulcerative colitis and will be stepping down as PM after a record long run in the role.  Initially, there was a great deal of excitement about his Abe-nomics plan to reflate the Japanese economy, but essentially, the only thing it accomplished was a weakening of the yen from 85.00 to 105.00 during the past eight years.  Otherwise, inflation remains MIA and the economy remains highly regulated.  The market reaction to the announcement was to buy yen, and it is higher by 1.15% this morning, although much of that is in response to the Fed.  However, it does appear that one of the frontrunners for his replacement (former Defense Minister Shigeru Ishiba) has populist tendencies, which may result in risk aversion and a stronger yen.

As to the equity market, the Nikkei (-1.4%) did not appreciate the Abe news, but Shanghai (+1.6%) seemed to feel that a more dovish Fed was a net benefit, especially for all those Chinese companies with USD debt.  Europe has been a little less positive (DAX -0.3%, CAC -0.1%) as there is now a growing concern that the euro will have much further to run.  Remember, most Eurozone economies are far more reliant on exports than the US, and a strong euro will have definite repercussions across the continent.  My forecast is that Madame Lagarde will be announcing the ECB’s policy framework review in the near future, perhaps as soon as their September meeting, and there will be an extremely dovish tone.  As I have written before, the absolute last thing the ECB wants or needs is a strong euro.  If they perceive that the Fed has just insured further dollar weakness, they will respond in kind.

Turning to the data, we see a plethora of numbers this morning.  Personal Income (exp -0.2%), Personal Spending (1.6%) and Core PCE (1.2%) lead us off at 8:30.  Then later, we see Chicago PMI (52.6) and Michigan Sentiment (72.8).  The thing is, none of these matters for now.  In fact, arguably, the only number that matters going forward is Core PCE.  If it remains mired near its current levels, the dollar will continue to suffer as not only will there be no tightening, but it seems possible the Fed will look to do more to drive it higher.  On the other hand, if it starts to climb, until it is over 2.0%, the Fed will be standing pat.  And as we have seen, getting Core PCE above 2.0% is not something at which the Fed has had much success.  For now, the dollar is likely to follow its recent path and soften further.  At least until the ECB has its say!

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe
Adf

A Tiny Tsunami

Covid’s wrought havoc
Like a tiny tsunami
Can Japan rebound?

In what is starting off as a fairly quiet summer morning, there are a few noteworthy items to discuss. It cannot be surprising that Japan’s economy suffered greatly in Q2, given the damage to economic activity seen worldwide due to Covid-19. Thus, although the -7.8% Q2 result was slightly worse than forecast, it merely served to confirm the depths of the decline. But perhaps the more telling statistic is that, given Japan was in recession before Covid hit, the economy there has regressed to its size in 2011, right after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami brought the nation to its knees.

Back then, the dollar had been trending lower vs. the yen for the best part of the previous four years, so the fact that it dropped sharply on the news of the earthquake was hardly surprising. In fact, it was eight more months before the dollar reached its nadir vs. the yen (75.35), which simply tells us that the trend was the driver and the singular event did not disrupt that trend. And to be clear, that trend was quite steep, averaging nearly 11% per year from its beginning in 2007. In comparison, the current trend in USDJPY, while lower, is much less dramatic. Since its recent peak in June 2015, the entire decline has been just 15.5% (~3.2% per annum). Granted, there have been a few spikes lower, most recently in March during the first days of the Covid panic, but neither the economic situation nor the price action really resembles those days immediately after Tohoku.

The point is, while the dollar is certainly on its back foot, and the yen retains haven status, the idea of a dollar collapse seems far-fetched. I’m confident that Japan’s Q3 data will show significant improvement compared to the Covid inspired depths just reported, but given the massive debt overhang, as well as the aging demographics and trend growth activity in the country, it is likely to be quite a few years before Japan’s economy is once again as large as it was just last year. Ironically, that probably means the yen will continue to trend slowly higher over time. But even getting to 100 will be a long road.

The other interesting story last night was from China, where the PBOC added substantially more liquidity to the markets than had been anticipated, RMB 700 billion in total via one-year injections. This more than made up for the RMB550 billion that is maturing over the next week and served as the catalyst for the Shanghai Exchange’s (+2.35%) outperformance overnight. This merely reinforces the idea that excess central bank liquidity injections serve a singular purpose, goosing stock market returns supporting economic activity.

There is something of an irony involved in watching the central banks of communist nations like China and Russia behave as their actions are essentially identical to the actions of central banks in democratic nations. Is there really any difference between the PBOC injecting $100 billion or the Fed buying $100 billion of Treasuries? In the end, given the combination of uncertainty and global ill will, virtually all that money finds its way into equity markets, with the only question being which nation’s markets will be favored on any given day. It is completely disingenuous for the Fed, or any central bank, to explain that their activities are not expanding the current bubble in markets; they clearly are doing just that.

But the one thing of which we can be certain is that they are not going to stop of their own accord. Either they will be forced to do so after changes in political leadership (unlikely) or the investment community will become more fearful of their actions than any possible inaction on their parts. It is only at that point when this bubble will burst (and it will) at which time central banks will find themselves powerless and out of ammunition to address the ensuing financial distress. As to when that will occur, nobody knows, but you can be certain it will occur.

And with that pleasant thought now past, a recap of the overnight activity shows that aside from Shanghai, the equity picture was mixed in Asia (Nikkei -0.8%, Hang Seng +0.6%) while European bourses are similarly mixed (DAX +0.2%, CAC 0.0%, Spain’s IBEX -0.75%). US futures are modestly higher at this point, but all well less than 1%. Bond markets are starting to find a bid, with 10-year Treasuries now down 1.5 basis points, although still suffering indigestion from last week’s record Treasury auctions. And in fact, Wednesday there is another huge Treasury auction, $25 billion of 20-year bonds, so it would not be surprising to see yields move higher from here. European bond markets are all modestly firmer, with yields mostly edging lower by less than 1bp. Commodity markets show oil prices virtually unchanged on the day while gold (and silver) are rebounding from last week’s profit-taking bout, with the shiny stuff up 0.5% (AG +2.1%).

Finally, the dollar is arguably slightly softer overall, but there have really been no large movements overnight. In G10 world, the biggest loser has been NZD (-0.3%) as the market voted no to the announcement that New Zealand would be postponing its election by 4 weeks due to the recently re-imposed lockdown in Auckland. On the plus side, JPY leads the way (+0.25%, with CAD and AUD (both +0.2%) close by on metals price strength. Otherwise, this space is virtually unchanged.

Emerging markets have had a bit more spice to them with RUB (-1.25%) the outlier in what appears to be some position unwinding of what had been growing RUB long positions in the speculative community. But away from that, HUF (-0.6%) is the only other mover of note, as investors grow nervous over the expansion of the current account deficit there.

This week’s data releases seem likely to be less impactful as they focus mostly on housing:

Today Empire Manufacturing 15.0
Tuesday Housing Starts 1240K
  Building Permits 1320K
Wednesday FOMC Minutes  
Thursday Initial Claims 915K
  Continuing Claims 15.0M
  Philly Fed 21.0
Friday Manufacturing PMI 51.8
  Services PMI 51.0
  Existing Home Sales5.40M  

Source: Bloomberg

Of course, the FOMC Minutes will be greatly anticipated as analysts all seek to glean the Fed’s intentions regarding the policy overhaul that has been in progress for the past year. Away from the Minutes, though, there are only two Fed speakers, Bostic and Daly. And let’s face it, pretty much every FOMC member is now on board with the idea that raising the cost of living inflation is imperative, and that if inflation runs hot for a while, there is no problem. Clearly, they don’t do their own food-shopping!

It is hard to get too excited about markets one way or the other today, but my broad view is that though the medium-term trend for the dollar may be lower, we continue to be in a consolidation phase for now.

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Quite Sordid

For Italy, France and for Spain
The data released showed their pain
Each nation recorded
A number quite sordid
And each, Covid, still can’t contain

As awful as the US GDP data was yesterday, with an annualized decline of 32.9%, this morning saw even worse data from Europe.  In fact, each of the four largest Eurozone nations recorded larger declines in growth than did the US in Q2.  After all, Germany’s 10.1% decline was a Q/Q number.  If we annualize that, it comes to around 41%.  Today we saw Italy (-12.4% Q/Q, -50% annualized), France (-13.8% Q/Q or -55% annualized) and Spain, the worst of the lot (-18.5% Q/Q or -75% annualized).  It is, of course, no surprise that the Eurozone, as a whole, saw a Q/Q decline of 12.1% which annualizes to something like 49%.  At those levels, precision is not critical, the big figure tells you everything you need to know.  And what we know is that the depths of recession in Europe were greater than anywhere else in Q2.

The thing is, none of this really matters any more.  The only thing the Q2 GDP data did was establish the base from which future growth will occur.  We saw this in the US yesterday, where equity markets rallied, and we are seeing and hearing it today throughout Europe as the narrative is quite clear; Q2 was the nadir and things should get better going forward.  In fact, that is the entire thesis behind the V-shaped recovery.  Certainly, one would be hard pressed to imagine a situation where Q3 GDP could shrink relative to Q2, but unfortunately the rebound story is running into some trouble these days.

The trouble is making itself known in various ways.  For example, the fact that the Initial Claims data in the US has stopped declining is a strong indication that growth is plateauing.  This is confirmed by the resurgence of Covid cases being recorded throughout the South and West and the reimposition of lockdown measures and closures of bars and restaurants in California, Texas and Arizona.  And, alas, we are seeing the same situation throughout Europe (and in truth, the rest of the world) as nations that had been lionized for their ability to act quickly and prevent the spread of the virus through draconian measures, find that Covid is quite resilient and infections are surging in Spain, Italy, Germany, the UK, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and even in China.  You remember China, the origin of the virus, and the nation that explained they had eradicated it completely just last month.  Maybe eradicated was too strong a word.

So, the real question is, what happens to markets if the future trajectory of growth is much shallower than a V?  It is not difficult to argue that equity markets, especially in the US, are priced for the retracement of all the lost growth.  That seems to be at odds with the situation on the ground where thousands of small businesses have closed their doors forever.  And not just small businesses.  The list of bankruptcy filings by large, well-known companies is staggeringly long.

Can continued monetary and fiscal support from government institutions really replace true economic activity?  Of course, the answer to that question is no.  Money from nothing and excessive debt issuance will never substitute for the creation of real goods and services that are demanded by the population.  So, while equity markets trade under the assumption that government support is a stop-gap filler until activity returns to normal, the recent, high-frequency data is implying that the gap could be much longer than initially anticipated.

And as has been highlighted in many venues, the bond market is telling a different story.  Treasury yields out to 10 years are now trading at record lows.  The amount of negative yielding debt worldwide is climbing again, now back to $16 trillion, and heading for the record levels seen at the end of last August.  This price behavior is the very antithesis of expected strong growth in the future.  Rather it signals concerns that growth will be absent for years to come, and with it inflationary pressures.  At some point, these two asset classes will both agree on a story, and one of them will require a major repricing.  My money is on the stock market to change its tune.

But that is a longer term discussion.  For now, let us review the overnight session.  It is hard to characterize it as either risk-on or risk-off, as we continue to see mixed signals from different markets.  In Asia, the Nikkei was the worst performer, falling 2.8% as concerns grow that a second wave of Covid infections is going to stop the signs of recovery.  Confirming those fears, a meeting of government and central bank officials took place where they discussed what to do in just such a situation, which of course means there will be more stimulus, both monetary and fiscal, on its way soon.  The yen behaved as its haven status would dictate, rallying further and touching a new low for the move at 104.19 before backtracking and sitting unchanged on the day as I type.  The thing about the yen is that 105 had proven to be a strong support level and is now likely going to behave as resistance.  While I don’t see a collapse, USDJPY has further to fall.

The rest of Asia saw weakness (Hang Seng -0.5%, Sydney -2.0%) and strength (Shanghai +0.7%) with the latter responding to modestly better than expected PMI data, while the former two are feeling the impact of the rise in infections.  Europe, on the other hand, is green across the board, with Italy’s FTSE MIB (+1.25%) leading the way, although the DAX (+0.7%) is performing well.  Here, just like in the US, investors seem to believe in the V-shaped recovery and now that the worst has been seen, those investors are prepared to jump in with both feet.

As discussed above, bond markets continue to rally, and yields continue to fall.  That is true throughout Europe as well as in the US.  In fact, it is true in Asia as well, with China the lone exception, seeing its 10-year yield rise 4bps overnight.

And finally, the dollar can only be described as mixed.  In the G10, NZD (-0.5%) and AUD (-0.2%) are the worst performers as both suffer from concerns over growing numbers of new Covid cases, while SEK and GBP (+0.25% each) lead the way higher.  It is ironic as there is concern over the growing number of cases in those nations as well, and, in fact, the UK is locking down over 4 million people in the north because of a rise in infections.  But the pound has been on fire lately, and that momentum shows no signs of abating for now.  One would almost think that a Brexit deal has been agreed, but the latest news has been decidedly negative there.  This is simply a reminder that FX is a perverse market.

Emerging markets have also seen mixed activity, although it is even more confusing.  Even though commodities are having a pretty good day, with both oil and gold prices higher, the commodity currencies are the worst performers today, with ZAR (-1.35%), RUB (-1.0%) and MXN (-0.9%) all deeply in the red.  On the positive side, THB (+0.85%) and CNY (+0.5%) are showing solid strength.  The renminbi, we already know, is benefitting from the better than expected PMI data while the baht benefitted from ongoing equity inflows.

This morning we see another large grouping of data as follows: Personal Income (exp -0.6%), Personal Spending (5.2%), core PCE Deflator (1.0%), Chicago PMI (44.5) and Michigan Sentiment (72.9).  As inflation is no longer even a concern at the Fed, or any G10 central bank, the market is likely to look at two things, Spending data which could help cement the idea that things are rebounding nicely, or not, and Chicago PMI, as an indication of whether industrial activity is picking up again.

Overall, regardless of the data, the trend remains for the dollar to decline, at least against its G10 brethren and I see nothing that is going to change that trend for now.  At some point, it will make sense for receivables hedgers to take advantage, but it is probably still too early for that.

Good luck, good weekend and stay safe

Adf

 

More Than a Molehill

The House passed a stimulus bill
With price tag of more than three trill
Japan’s latest play
Three billion a day
Adds up to more than a molehill

But turning to Europe we find
Their efforts are quite ill-designed
Despite desperate needs
The trouble exceeds
The laws that their treaties enshrined

Apparently, it’s Stimulus Day today, a little-known holiday designed by politicians to announce new fiscal stimulus measures to great fanfare. At least, that’s what it seems like anyway. Last night, Japanese PM Abe announced Japan’s second extra stimulus package in just over a month, this one with a price tag of ¥117 trillion, or roughly $1.1 trillion at today’s exchange rate (which, if you do the math works out to just over $3 billion/day over the course of a year). For an economy with a total GDP of ~$4.9 trillion, that is a huge amount of extra money.

The BOJ has explained that they will not allow JGB yields to rise, which means that they are going to mop up all the issuance and the market (or what’s left of it) clearly believes them as 10-year JGB yields actually fell 1bp last night and are currently trading at -0.006%. It is certainly no imposition for the Japanese government to borrow money from the BOJ as it is essentially a free loan. The impact on the Nikkei was mildly positive, with the index rallying 0.7%, while the yen has edged lower by a mere 0.15% and remains firmly ensconced in its 106-108 range.

And one last thing, Japan lifted its state of emergency, as well, meaning lockdowns continue to dissipate around the world. Of course, the thing about stimulus during the Days of Covid is that it is not designed to boost growth so much as designed to replace activity that was prevented by government lockdowns. Unfortunately, none of the measures announced anywhere in the world will be able to fully offset the impact of all those closures, and so despite governments’ best efforts, the global economy is set to shrink in 2020.

But on this Stimulus Day, we cannot ignore what is likely a far more important piece of news emanating from Europe, the creation of a €750 billion (~$825 billion) fiscal stimulus package consisting of €500 billion of grants and the rest of loans. While the size of this package is dwarfed by the Japanese efforts, despite the fact that the EU represents an economy with GDP of more than €14.3 trillion, the importance stems from the fact that part of the funding will come from joint debt issuance. This, of course, has been the holy grail for the entirety of southern Europe as well as the French. Because this means that the Germans (and Dutch and Austrians) are going to pay for the rest of the continent’s problems. And since those three nations are the only ones that can afford to do so, it is certainly a big deal.

The timing of this cannot be ignored either as ECB President Lagarde, just this morning, informed the world that of the ECB’s GDP forecasts last month, the mild downturn scenario is now “out of date”, with a much greater likelihood that GDP will decline between 8% and 12% in 2020. The market response has been clear with the euro rallying 0.8% on the news and now higher by 0.3% on the day, and back above 1.10. Yields on the debt of the PIGS have also fallen nicely since the news hit the tape, with all four nations seeing a 5-6bp decline. And European equity markets, which seem to have anticipated the news, have climbed a bit further, and are now all higher by more than 1.25% with Spain’s IBEX leading the way, up 2.25%.

I guess the question is will the US Senate join in the festivities (you recall the House already passed a $3 trillion package last week) and agree to at least discuss the idea, although they have made clear the House bill is a non-starter. The thing is, as has been evidenced by the recent stock market performance in the US, there are many that believe no further government stimulus is needed in the US. Optimism in the stock market has been driven by optimism that the gradual reopening of the economy in certain states will start to accelerate and that before too long, the lockdown period will end. Along those lines, Los Angeles mayor, Eric Garcetti, last night decided that small retail stores would be allowed to open today. Similarly, New York mayor Bill DiBlasio has now said that the first steps toward reopening could take place in the second week of June. The point is, if economic activity is going to start to rekindle on its own, why is further stimulus needed.

With this as background, we have seen a pretty substantial reversal in the FX market this morning, mostly since the EU stimulus announcement. While the yen has not moved, the G10 has seen currencies reverse course from a 0.3%-0.5% decline to similar sized gains. In other words, the market has seen this as further evidence that risk is to be acquired at all costs. Certainly, if the EU can figure out how to effectively fund its weakest members without causing a political uproar in the Teutonic trio, then one of the key negative fundamentals for the single currency will have been corrected. This works hand in hand with my view of increasingly negative real interest rates in the US as a driver of medium-term dollar weakness. While I don’t expect the euro to run away higher, this is certainly very positive news.

Meanwhile, those EMG currencies whose markets are open have all reversed course as well, with the CE4 higher by an average of 0.45%, having been lower by a similar amount before the announcement. APAC currencies, which had suffered a bit overnight, have not had a chance to react to the news as their local markets had closed before the report. I expect that, ceteris paribus, they will perform better tonight. The one currency, though, that is not performing well today is the Chinese renminbi, and more specifically CNH, the offshore version. It is lower by -.35%, having fallen early in last night’s session as tensions continue to increase between the US and China. As I have maintained for a very long period, the currency is an important outlet for Chinese economic imbalances and further weakness is a far more likely outcome than a reversal anytime soon.

Yesterday’s housing data in the US was surprisingly robust, with New Home Sales falling far less than expected. Today, the only real release will be the Fed’s Beige Book at 2:00, which might be interesting, but can be expected to paint a very dire picture of the regional economies. But none of that matters anymore. The future is clearly much brighter this morning as the combination of Japanese and EU stimulus along with additional easing of US restrictions has investors primed to use all that stimulus money and pump up asset prices even further. What could possibly go wrong?

Good luck and stay safe
Adf

Ere Prices Explode

The pace of infection has slowed
In Europe, and thus has bestowed
A signal its clear
To shift to high gear
And buy stocks ere prices explode

In the markets’ collective mind, it appears that the peak of concern has been achieved. At least, that is what the price action for the past two days is indicating as risk is once again being aggressively absorbed by investors. Equity prices in the US soared yesterday, up more than 7.0% and that rally followed through overnight in Asia (Nikkei, Hang Seng and Shanghai all +2%) and Europe (DAX +3.2%, CAC +2.8) as the latest data indicate that the pace of infection growth may have reached an inflection point and started to turn lower. At least, that is certainly the market’s fervent hope. The question that comes to mind, though, is just how badly the global economy has been damaged by the health measures taken to slow the spread of the virus. After all, entire industries have been shuttered, millions upon millions have been thrown out of work, and arguably most importantly, individual attitudes about large crowds and mingling with strangers have been dramatically altered. Ask yourself this: how keen are you to go to watch a baseball game this summer with 50,000 other fans, none of whom you know?

Consider the poor misanthrope
Whose previous role was to mope
‘bout Facebook and Twitter
While growing more bitter
With Covid, his views are in scope

It does not seem hard to make the case that the market has moved far ahead of the curve with respect to the eventual recovery of the economy. If anything, the economic data we have seen has indicated that the depth of the recession is going to be greater, not lesser than previously expected, while the length of that recession remains completely unknown. One thing we have seen from the nations who were the early sites of infection; China, Japan, Singapore and South Korea, is that once they started to relax early restrictions, the pace of infection increased again. In fact, in Japan, PM Abe has declared a state of emergency in 6 prefectures for the next month, to impose restrictions on businesses and crowds. Similarly, Singapore has seen a revival in the infection rate and has imposed tighter restrictions to last through the rest of April.

The point is, a possible inflection point in the pace of growth in cases, while a potential positive, doesn’t seem worthy of a 10% rally in stock prices. The one thing of which we can all be sure is that the recession, when it is eventually measured, is going to be remarkably deep. It is almost certain to be much worse than the GFC as the amount of leverage in the real economy is so much greater and will cause much more damage to Main Street. Recall, the GFC was a financial crisis, and once the Fed supported the banks, things were able to get back to previous operating standards. It is not clear that outcome will be the case this time. So, does it really make sense to chase after risk assets right now? Bear markets historically last far longer than a month, and it is not uncommon for sharp rallies to occur within the longer term bear market. Alas, I see more pain in the future so be careful.

And with that in mind, let us turn our attention to the FX market, where the dollar is lower versus every other currency of note. In the G10 bloc, NOK is today’s leader, +2.2%, as hopes that an OPEC+ agreement will be reached this week have helped oil prices rise more than 3.0%, thus ensuring a benefit to this most petro-focused of currencies. But it’s not just NOK, AUD is higher by 1.5% after the RBA left rates on hold, as expected, and announced that they have purchased A$36 billion of bonds via QE thus far. The rest of the bloc has seen gains ranging from 0.6% (CHF) to 1.1% (SEK) as the overall attitude is simply add risk. The one exception is the yen, which has barely edged higher by 0.1%, ceding earlier gains in the wake of the state of emergency announcement.

Turning to the emerging markets, CZK and ZAR are the frontrunners, with the former up a robust 2.4% while the rand is higher by 2.1%. It seems that the Czech story is merely one of a broad-based positive view of the country’s fiscal house, which shows substantial reserves and the best combined ability to deal with the crisis and prevent capital flight of all EM currencies. Meanwhile, the rand has been a beneficiary of inflows into their government bond market, which are currently competing with the SARB who is also buying bonds. Perhaps the most encouraging sight is that of MXN, where the peso is higher by 1.5% this morning as it is finally receiving the benefit of the rebound in oil prices. In addition, key data to be released this morning includes the nation’s international reserves, a number which has grown in importance during the ongoing crisis. We have already seen some significant drawdowns in EMG reserve data as countries like Indonesia and Brazil seek to stem the weakness in their currencies. That has not yet been the case in Mexico, but given the peso’s phenomenal weakness, it has fallen 25% since March 1, many pundits are questioning when the central bank will be in the market.

Overall, though, it is a risk-on day and the dollar is suffering for it. Data this morning has already shown that the NFIB Small Business Optimism index is not so optimistic, falling 8 points to 96.4, back to levels seen just prior to the 2016 presidential election, which ushered in a significant increase in optimism. We also get the JOLT’s jobs data (exp 6.5M) but that is a February number, and obviously of little value as an economic indicator now.

It appears to me that the market is pricing in a lot of remarkably positive data and a happy ending much sooner than seems likely. Cash flow hedgers need to keep that in mind as they consider their next steps.

Good luck
Adf

Set For Stagnation

When thinking of every great nation
Regarding its growth expectation
The US alone
Is like to have grown
While others seem set for stagnation

The upshot of these circumstances
Is regular dollar advances
Within the G10
It’s euros and yen
That suffer on policy stances

Another day, another dollar rally. This simple sentiment pretty well sums up what we have been seeing for the past several weeks. And while there may be a multitude of catalysts driving individual currency movements, the reality is they all point in the same direction, a stronger dollar. Broadly speaking, data from around the world, excluding the US, has been consistently weaker than expected while the US continues to hum along nicely. Now, if China’s economy remains in its current catatonic state for another month, one has to believe that US numbers are going to suffer, if only for supply chain reasons. But right now, it is difficult for anyone to make the case that another currency is better placed than the dollar.

For example, last night we saw Australian Unemployment unexpectedly rise to 5.3% as the first measured impacts of Covid-19 make themselves felt Down Under. Traders wasted no time in selling Aussie and here we are this morning with the currency lower by 0.75%, trading to new lows for the move and touching its lowest level since March 2009. Perhaps the Lucky Country has run out of luck.

The yen keeps falling
Like ash from Fujiyama
Is an end in sight?

At this point in the session, the yen has seen its largest two-day decline since November 2016, in the immediate wake of President Trump’s election, and has now fallen more than 2.0% since Tuesday morning. It has broken through a key technical level at 111.02, which represented a very long-term downtrend line. This has encouraged short-term traders to add to what is believed to be significant outflows from Japanese investors, notably insurance companies. One of the other interesting things is that Japanese exporters, who are typically sellers of USDJPY, seem to be sitting this move out, having filled orders at the 110 level, and are now apparently waiting for 115. While it is unlikely that we will see the yen continue to decline 1% each day, I have to admit that 115 seems quite realistic by the end of the Japanese fiscal year next month.

And those are just two of the many stories that seem to be coming together simultaneously to encourage dollar buying. Other candidates are ongoing weak Eurozone economic data (Eurozone Construction output falling and reduced forecasts for tomorrow’s flash PMI data), rate cuts by EMG central banks (Indonesia cut by 25bps last night), and more confusion from China regarding Covid-19 and its spread. Last night, they changed the way they count infections for the second time in a week, and shockingly the result was a lower number indicating the spread of the disease is slowing. However, at this point, the virus count seems to be having less of a market impact than little things like the announcement that Hubei province is keeping all factories shuttered until at least March 10. Now I don’t know about you, but that hardly seems like the type of thing that indicates things are getting better there.

There is a new tacit contest in the market as well, trying to determine just how big a hit the Chinese economy is going to take in Q1. If you recall two weeks ago, the initial estimates were that GDP would grow at a 4%-5% rate in Q1. At this point 0.0% seems a given with a number of analysts penciling in negative growth for the quarter. And folks, I don’t know why anyone would think there is going to be a V-shaped recovery there. It is going to take a long time to get things anywhere near normal, and there has already been a lot of permanent demand destruction. On top of that, one of the things I had discussed last week, the idea that even if companies aren’t generating revenue, they still need to pay interest on their debt, is starting to be seen more publicly. The news overnight that HNA Group, a massively indebted conglomerate that had acquired trophy assets all around the world (stakes in Hilton Hotels and Deutsche Bank amongst others) is unable to pay interest on its debt and seems to be moving under state control. While the PBOC cut rates slightly overnight, the one-year loan prime rate is down to 4.05% from 4.15% previously, it appears that the Chinese government is going to be fighting the Covid-19 fight with more fiscal measures than monetary ones. That said, the renminbi has been falling along with all other currencies and has traded back through 7.00 to the dollar after a further 0.35% decline overnight.

The point is that you can essentially look at any currency right now and it is weaker vs. the dollar. Each may have its own story to tell, but they all point in the same direction.

I would be remiss to ignore other markets, which show that other than Chinese equity markets (Shanghai +1.85%), which rallied last night after news of further stimulus measures, risk is mostly on its back foot today. European equity markets are generally lower (DAX -0.1%, CAC -0.1%) although not by much. US futures are pointing lower by 0.2% across the board, again, not significant, but directionally the same message. Treasury yields continue to fall, down another 2bps this morning to 1.54%, and gold continues to rally, up another 0.3% this morning.

Yesterday’s FOMC Minutes explained that the Fed was pretty happy with current policy settings, something we already knew, and that they are still unsure how to change their ways to try to be more effective with respect to achieving their inflation target as well as insuring that there are no more funding crises. On the data front, yesterday’s PPI data was much firmer than expected, although most people pretty much ignore those numbers. Today we see Philly Fed (exp 11.0), Initial Claims (210K) and Leading Indicators (0.4%). Monday’s Empire Mfg data was stronger than expected and the forecasts for Philly Fed are for a solid increase. Yet again, the data picture points to a better outcome in the US than elsewhere, which in the current environment will only encourage further USD buying. For now, don’t get in front of this train, but if you need to hedge receivables, sooner is better than later as I think we could see this run for a while.

Good luck
Adf

Forecasts to Hell

The company named like a fruit
Said Covid was going to shoot
Its forecasts to hell
So risk assets fell
And havens all rallied to boot

Essentially, since the beginning of the Lunar New Year, there have been two competing narratives. First was the idea that the spread of the Covid virus would have a significantly detrimental impact on the global economy, reducing both production, due to the interruption of supply chains, and consumption, as the world’s second largest economy went into lockdown. This would result in a risk-off theme with haven assets in significant demand. The second was that, just like the SARS virus from 2003, this would be a temporary phenomenon and the fact that central banks around the world have been ramping up policy support by cutting rates and buying assets means that risk assets would continue their relentless march higher. And quite frankly, while there were a handful of days where the first thesis held sway, generally speaking, equity markets at least, are all-in on the second thesis.

At least that was true until today, when THE bellwether stock in the global equity markets explained that Q1 sales would miss forecasts due not only to production delays caused by supply chain interruptions, but to reduced sales as well. This news certainly put a crimp in the bull theory that the virus impact will be temporary and we have seen equity markets around the world suffer, while Treasuries rally, as fears are reignited over the ultimate impact of the CoVid virus.

While this author is no virologist, and does not pretend to have any special insight into how things with Covid evolve from here, long experience informs me that government efforts have been far more focused on controlling the message than controlling the virus. Confidence plays such an important part in today’s economy, and if the first narrative above is the one that takes hold, then there is very little that governments will be able to do to prevent a more substantial downturn and likely recession. Remember, at least in the G10, most central banks are basically out of ammunition with respect to their abilities to pump up the economy, so if the populace hunkers down because of fear, things could get ugly pretty quickly. And with that cheerful thought, let’s take a tour of the markets this morning.

It turns out the tax
On goods and services was
A growth disaster

During the US holiday weekend, we received a stunningly bad Q4 GDP report from Japan, with a -1.6% Q/Q result which turned into a -6.3% annualized number. Not only was that significantly worse than expected, but it was the worst outturn since the last time the Japanese government raised the GST in 2014. So, in their effort to be fiscally prudent, they blew an even bigger hole in their budget! But the yen didn’t really mind, as it remains a key safe haven, and while it weakened ever so slightly yesterday, this morning’s fear based markets has allowed it to recoup those losses and then some. So as I type, the yen is stronger by 0.15% today. Certainly, selling yen is a fraught operation in a market with as big a potential fear catalyst as currently exists.

Meanwhile, that other erstwhile growth engine, Germany, once again demonstrated that the idea of a rebound this year is on extremely shaky ground. Early this morning the ZEW surveys were released with the Expectations reading falling sharply to 8.7, while Current Situations fell to -15.7. While the numbers themselves have no independent meaning, both results were far worse than expected and crushed the modest rebound that had been seen in December. The euro has been under pressure since the release of the data, falling to a new low for the move and continuing its streak of down days, now up to 10 of the past twelve sessions, with the other two sessions closing essentially flat. The euro story has shown no signs of turning around on its own, and for the euro to stop declining we will need to see the dollar story change. Right now, that seems unlikely.

And generally speaking, the dollar is simply outperforming all other currencies. Versus the EMG bloc, the dollar is higher across the board, with not a single one of these currencies able to rally against the greenback. Today’s biggest decliners are the RUB (-0.6%) as oil prices fall, KRW (-0.5%) as concerns grow over Covid, and ZAR (-0.45%) as both commodity prices decline and global growth fears increase. In the G10 space, it should be no surprise that both AUD (-0.5%) and NZD (-0.7%) are the worst performers (China related) as well as NOK (-0.7%) as oil suffers over concerns of slowing global growth. It seems like we’ve heard this story before.

The one currency doing well today, other than the yen, is the British pound (+0.2%) as UK Employment data, released early this morning, was generally better than expected, with the 3M/3M Employment Change slipping a much less than expected 28K to 180K, a still quite robust number. Interestingly, yesterday saw the pound under pressure as PM Johnson’s Europe Advisor, David Frost, laid out the UK’s goals as ditching all EU social constructs and simply focusing on trade. That is at odds with the hinted at EU view, which is they want the UK to follow all their edicts even though they are no longer in the club. Look for more fireworks as we go forward on this subject.

Looking ahead to this week, the US data is generally second-tier, although we will see FOMC Minutes tomorrow.

Today Empire Manufacturing 5.0
Wednesday Housing Starts 1420K
  Building Permits 1450K
  PPI 0.1% (1.6% Y/Y)
  -ex food & energy 0.1% (1.3% Y/Y)
  FOMC Minutes  
Thursday Initial Claims 210K
  Philly Fed 11.0
Friday Leading Indicators 0.4%
  Existing Home Sales 5.45M

Source: Bloomberg

So lots of housing data, which given the interest rate structure should be pretty decent. Of course, the problem is the reason the interest rate structure is so attractive to home buyers is the plethora of problems elsewhere in the economy. In addition, we have seven Fed speakers during the rest of the week with a nice mix of hawks and doves. Although it seems unlikely that anybody will change their views, be alert to Dallas Fed President Kaplan’s comments tomorrow and Friday as he is the only FOMC member who has admitted that continuing to pump up the balance sheet could cause excesses in risk taking.

At this point, there is nothing on the horizon that indicates the dollar’s run is over. Regarding the euro, technically there is nothing between current levels and the early 2017 lows of 1.0341 although I would expect some congestion at 1.0500.

Good luck
Adf

No Panacea

Fiscal stimulus
Is no panacea, but
Welcome nonetheless

At least by markets
And politicians as well
If it buys them votes!

Perhaps the MMTer’s are right, fiscal rectitude is passé and governments that are not borrowing and spending massive amounts of money are needlessly harming their own countries. After all, what other lesson can we take from the fact that Japan, the nation with the largest debt/GDP ratio (currently 236%) has just announced they are going to borrow an additional ¥26 trillion ($239 billion) to spend in support of the economy, and the market response was a stock market rally and a miniscule rise in JGB yields of just 1bp. Meanwhile, the yen is essentially unchanged.

Granted, despite the fact that this equates to nearly 5% of the current GDP, given JGB interest rates are essentially 0.0% (actually slightly negative) it won’t cost very much on an ongoing basis. However, at some point the question needs to be answered as to how they will ever repay all that debt. It seems the most likely outcome will be some type of explicit debt monetization, where the BOJ simply tears up maturing bonds and leaves the cash in the economy, thus reducing the debt and maintaining monetary stimulus. However, macroeconomic theory explains following that path will result in significant inflation. And of course, that’s the crux of the MMT philosophy, print money aggressively until inflation picks up.

The thing is, every time this process has been followed in the past, it basically destroyed the guilty country. Consider Weimar Germany, Zimbabwe and even Venezuela today as three of the most famous examples. And while inflation in Japan is virtually non-existent right now, that does not mean it cannot rise quite rapidly in the future. The point is that, currently, the yen is seen as a safe haven currency due to its strong current account surplus and the fact that its net debt position is not terribly large. But the further down this path Japan travels, the more likely those features are to change and that will be a distinct negative for the currency. Of course, this process will take years to play out, and perhaps something else will come along to change the trajectory of these long term processes, but the idea that the yen will remain a haven forever needs to be constantly re-evaluated. Just not today!

In the meantime, markets remain in a buoyant mood as additional comments from the Chinese that both sides remain in “close contact”, implying a deal is near, has the bulls ascendant. So Tuesday’s fears are long forgotten and equity markets are rallying while government bond yields edge higher. As to the dollar, it is generally on its back foot this morning as well, keeping with the theme that risk is ‘on’.

Looking at specific stories, there are several of note today. Overnight, Australia released weaker than expected GDP figures which has reignited the conversation about the RBA cutting rates in Q1 and helped to weaken Aussie by 0.3% despite the USD’s overall weakness. Elsewhere in the G10, British pound traders continue to close out short positions as the polls, with just one week left before the election, continue to point to a Tory victory and with it, finality on the Brexit issue. My view continues to be that the market is buying pounds in anticipation of this outcome, and that once the election results are final, there will be a correction. It is still hard for me to see the pound much above 1.34. However, there are a number of analysts who are calling for 1.45 in the event of a strong Tory majority, so be aware of the differing viewpoints.

On the Continent, German Factory Order data disappointed, yet again, falling 0.4% rather than rising by a similar amount as expected. This takes the Y/Y decline to 5.5% and hardly bodes well for a rebound in Germany. However, the euro has edged higher this morning, up 0.15% and hovering just below 1.11, as we have seen a number of stories rehashing the comments of numerous ECB members regarding the idea that negative interest rates have reached their inflection point where further cuts would do more harm than good. With the ECB meeting next Thursday, expectations for further rate cuts have basically evaporated for the next year, despite the official guidance that more is coming. In other words, the market no longer believes the ECB can will ease policy further, and the euro is likely edging higher as that idea makes its way through the market. Nonetheless, I see no reason for the euro to trade much higher at all, especially as the US economy continues to outperform the Eurozone.

In the emerging markets, the RBI surprised the entire market and left interest rates on hold, rather than cutting by 25bps as universally expected. The rupee rallied 0.35% on the news as the accompanying comments implied that the recent rise in inflation was of more concern to the bank than the fact that GDP growth was slowing more rapidly than previously expected. In a similar vein, PHP is stronger by 0.5% this morning after CPI printed a bit higher than expected (1.3%) and the market assumed there is now less reason for the central bank to continue its rate cutting cycle thus maintaining a more attractive carry destination. On the other side of the ledger, ZAR is under pressure this morning, falling 0.5% after data releases showed the current account deficit growing more rapidly than expected while Electricity production (a proxy for IP) fell sharply. It seems that in some countries, fiscal rectitude still matters!

On the data front this morning, we see Initial Claims (exp 215K), Trade Balance (-$48.5B), Factory Orders (0.3%) and Durable Goods (0.6%, 0.6% ex transport). Yesterday we saw weaker than expected US data (ADP Employment rose just 67K and ISM Non-Manufacturing fell to 53.9) which has to be somewhat disconcerting for Chairman Powell and friends. If today’s slate of data is weak, and tomorrow’s NFP report underwhelms, I think that can be a situation where the dollar comes under more concerted pressure as expectations of further Fed rate cuts will build. But for now, I am still in the camp that the Fed is on hold, the data will be mixed and the dollar will hold its own, although is unlikely to rally much from here for the time being.

Good luck
Adf