Ere Prices Explode

The pace of infection has slowed
In Europe, and thus has bestowed
A signal its clear
To shift to high gear
And buy stocks ere prices explode

In the markets’ collective mind, it appears that the peak of concern has been achieved. At least, that is what the price action for the past two days is indicating as risk is once again being aggressively absorbed by investors. Equity prices in the US soared yesterday, up more than 7.0% and that rally followed through overnight in Asia (Nikkei, Hang Seng and Shanghai all +2%) and Europe (DAX +3.2%, CAC +2.8) as the latest data indicate that the pace of infection growth may have reached an inflection point and started to turn lower. At least, that is certainly the market’s fervent hope. The question that comes to mind, though, is just how badly the global economy has been damaged by the health measures taken to slow the spread of the virus. After all, entire industries have been shuttered, millions upon millions have been thrown out of work, and arguably most importantly, individual attitudes about large crowds and mingling with strangers have been dramatically altered. Ask yourself this: how keen are you to go to watch a baseball game this summer with 50,000 other fans, none of whom you know?

Consider the poor misanthrope
Whose previous role was to mope
‘bout Facebook and Twitter
While growing more bitter
With Covid, his views are in scope

It does not seem hard to make the case that the market has moved far ahead of the curve with respect to the eventual recovery of the economy. If anything, the economic data we have seen has indicated that the depth of the recession is going to be greater, not lesser than previously expected, while the length of that recession remains completely unknown. One thing we have seen from the nations who were the early sites of infection; China, Japan, Singapore and South Korea, is that once they started to relax early restrictions, the pace of infection increased again. In fact, in Japan, PM Abe has declared a state of emergency in 6 prefectures for the next month, to impose restrictions on businesses and crowds. Similarly, Singapore has seen a revival in the infection rate and has imposed tighter restrictions to last through the rest of April.

The point is, a possible inflection point in the pace of growth in cases, while a potential positive, doesn’t seem worthy of a 10% rally in stock prices. The one thing of which we can all be sure is that the recession, when it is eventually measured, is going to be remarkably deep. It is almost certain to be much worse than the GFC as the amount of leverage in the real economy is so much greater and will cause much more damage to Main Street. Recall, the GFC was a financial crisis, and once the Fed supported the banks, things were able to get back to previous operating standards. It is not clear that outcome will be the case this time. So, does it really make sense to chase after risk assets right now? Bear markets historically last far longer than a month, and it is not uncommon for sharp rallies to occur within the longer term bear market. Alas, I see more pain in the future so be careful.

And with that in mind, let us turn our attention to the FX market, where the dollar is lower versus every other currency of note. In the G10 bloc, NOK is today’s leader, +2.2%, as hopes that an OPEC+ agreement will be reached this week have helped oil prices rise more than 3.0%, thus ensuring a benefit to this most petro-focused of currencies. But it’s not just NOK, AUD is higher by 1.5% after the RBA left rates on hold, as expected, and announced that they have purchased A$36 billion of bonds via QE thus far. The rest of the bloc has seen gains ranging from 0.6% (CHF) to 1.1% (SEK) as the overall attitude is simply add risk. The one exception is the yen, which has barely edged higher by 0.1%, ceding earlier gains in the wake of the state of emergency announcement.

Turning to the emerging markets, CZK and ZAR are the frontrunners, with the former up a robust 2.4% while the rand is higher by 2.1%. It seems that the Czech story is merely one of a broad-based positive view of the country’s fiscal house, which shows substantial reserves and the best combined ability to deal with the crisis and prevent capital flight of all EM currencies. Meanwhile, the rand has been a beneficiary of inflows into their government bond market, which are currently competing with the SARB who is also buying bonds. Perhaps the most encouraging sight is that of MXN, where the peso is higher by 1.5% this morning as it is finally receiving the benefit of the rebound in oil prices. In addition, key data to be released this morning includes the nation’s international reserves, a number which has grown in importance during the ongoing crisis. We have already seen some significant drawdowns in EMG reserve data as countries like Indonesia and Brazil seek to stem the weakness in their currencies. That has not yet been the case in Mexico, but given the peso’s phenomenal weakness, it has fallen 25% since March 1, many pundits are questioning when the central bank will be in the market.

Overall, though, it is a risk-on day and the dollar is suffering for it. Data this morning has already shown that the NFIB Small Business Optimism index is not so optimistic, falling 8 points to 96.4, back to levels seen just prior to the 2016 presidential election, which ushered in a significant increase in optimism. We also get the JOLT’s jobs data (exp 6.5M) but that is a February number, and obviously of little value as an economic indicator now.

It appears to me that the market is pricing in a lot of remarkably positive data and a happy ending much sooner than seems likely. Cash flow hedgers need to keep that in mind as they consider their next steps.

Good luck
Adf

Set For Stagnation

When thinking of every great nation
Regarding its growth expectation
The US alone
Is like to have grown
While others seem set for stagnation

The upshot of these circumstances
Is regular dollar advances
Within the G10
It’s euros and yen
That suffer on policy stances

Another day, another dollar rally. This simple sentiment pretty well sums up what we have been seeing for the past several weeks. And while there may be a multitude of catalysts driving individual currency movements, the reality is they all point in the same direction, a stronger dollar. Broadly speaking, data from around the world, excluding the US, has been consistently weaker than expected while the US continues to hum along nicely. Now, if China’s economy remains in its current catatonic state for another month, one has to believe that US numbers are going to suffer, if only for supply chain reasons. But right now, it is difficult for anyone to make the case that another currency is better placed than the dollar.

For example, last night we saw Australian Unemployment unexpectedly rise to 5.3% as the first measured impacts of Covid-19 make themselves felt Down Under. Traders wasted no time in selling Aussie and here we are this morning with the currency lower by 0.75%, trading to new lows for the move and touching its lowest level since March 2009. Perhaps the Lucky Country has run out of luck.

The yen keeps falling
Like ash from Fujiyama
Is an end in sight?

At this point in the session, the yen has seen its largest two-day decline since November 2016, in the immediate wake of President Trump’s election, and has now fallen more than 2.0% since Tuesday morning. It has broken through a key technical level at 111.02, which represented a very long-term downtrend line. This has encouraged short-term traders to add to what is believed to be significant outflows from Japanese investors, notably insurance companies. One of the other interesting things is that Japanese exporters, who are typically sellers of USDJPY, seem to be sitting this move out, having filled orders at the 110 level, and are now apparently waiting for 115. While it is unlikely that we will see the yen continue to decline 1% each day, I have to admit that 115 seems quite realistic by the end of the Japanese fiscal year next month.

And those are just two of the many stories that seem to be coming together simultaneously to encourage dollar buying. Other candidates are ongoing weak Eurozone economic data (Eurozone Construction output falling and reduced forecasts for tomorrow’s flash PMI data), rate cuts by EMG central banks (Indonesia cut by 25bps last night), and more confusion from China regarding Covid-19 and its spread. Last night, they changed the way they count infections for the second time in a week, and shockingly the result was a lower number indicating the spread of the disease is slowing. However, at this point, the virus count seems to be having less of a market impact than little things like the announcement that Hubei province is keeping all factories shuttered until at least March 10. Now I don’t know about you, but that hardly seems like the type of thing that indicates things are getting better there.

There is a new tacit contest in the market as well, trying to determine just how big a hit the Chinese economy is going to take in Q1. If you recall two weeks ago, the initial estimates were that GDP would grow at a 4%-5% rate in Q1. At this point 0.0% seems a given with a number of analysts penciling in negative growth for the quarter. And folks, I don’t know why anyone would think there is going to be a V-shaped recovery there. It is going to take a long time to get things anywhere near normal, and there has already been a lot of permanent demand destruction. On top of that, one of the things I had discussed last week, the idea that even if companies aren’t generating revenue, they still need to pay interest on their debt, is starting to be seen more publicly. The news overnight that HNA Group, a massively indebted conglomerate that had acquired trophy assets all around the world (stakes in Hilton Hotels and Deutsche Bank amongst others) is unable to pay interest on its debt and seems to be moving under state control. While the PBOC cut rates slightly overnight, the one-year loan prime rate is down to 4.05% from 4.15% previously, it appears that the Chinese government is going to be fighting the Covid-19 fight with more fiscal measures than monetary ones. That said, the renminbi has been falling along with all other currencies and has traded back through 7.00 to the dollar after a further 0.35% decline overnight.

The point is that you can essentially look at any currency right now and it is weaker vs. the dollar. Each may have its own story to tell, but they all point in the same direction.

I would be remiss to ignore other markets, which show that other than Chinese equity markets (Shanghai +1.85%), which rallied last night after news of further stimulus measures, risk is mostly on its back foot today. European equity markets are generally lower (DAX -0.1%, CAC -0.1%) although not by much. US futures are pointing lower by 0.2% across the board, again, not significant, but directionally the same message. Treasury yields continue to fall, down another 2bps this morning to 1.54%, and gold continues to rally, up another 0.3% this morning.

Yesterday’s FOMC Minutes explained that the Fed was pretty happy with current policy settings, something we already knew, and that they are still unsure how to change their ways to try to be more effective with respect to achieving their inflation target as well as insuring that there are no more funding crises. On the data front, yesterday’s PPI data was much firmer than expected, although most people pretty much ignore those numbers. Today we see Philly Fed (exp 11.0), Initial Claims (210K) and Leading Indicators (0.4%). Monday’s Empire Mfg data was stronger than expected and the forecasts for Philly Fed are for a solid increase. Yet again, the data picture points to a better outcome in the US than elsewhere, which in the current environment will only encourage further USD buying. For now, don’t get in front of this train, but if you need to hedge receivables, sooner is better than later as I think we could see this run for a while.

Good luck
Adf

Forecasts to Hell

The company named like a fruit
Said Covid was going to shoot
Its forecasts to hell
So risk assets fell
And havens all rallied to boot

Essentially, since the beginning of the Lunar New Year, there have been two competing narratives. First was the idea that the spread of the Covid virus would have a significantly detrimental impact on the global economy, reducing both production, due to the interruption of supply chains, and consumption, as the world’s second largest economy went into lockdown. This would result in a risk-off theme with haven assets in significant demand. The second was that, just like the SARS virus from 2003, this would be a temporary phenomenon and the fact that central banks around the world have been ramping up policy support by cutting rates and buying assets means that risk assets would continue their relentless march higher. And quite frankly, while there were a handful of days where the first thesis held sway, generally speaking, equity markets at least, are all-in on the second thesis.

At least that was true until today, when THE bellwether stock in the global equity markets explained that Q1 sales would miss forecasts due not only to production delays caused by supply chain interruptions, but to reduced sales as well. This news certainly put a crimp in the bull theory that the virus impact will be temporary and we have seen equity markets around the world suffer, while Treasuries rally, as fears are reignited over the ultimate impact of the CoVid virus.

While this author is no virologist, and does not pretend to have any special insight into how things with Covid evolve from here, long experience informs me that government efforts have been far more focused on controlling the message than controlling the virus. Confidence plays such an important part in today’s economy, and if the first narrative above is the one that takes hold, then there is very little that governments will be able to do to prevent a more substantial downturn and likely recession. Remember, at least in the G10, most central banks are basically out of ammunition with respect to their abilities to pump up the economy, so if the populace hunkers down because of fear, things could get ugly pretty quickly. And with that cheerful thought, let’s take a tour of the markets this morning.

It turns out the tax
On goods and services was
A growth disaster

During the US holiday weekend, we received a stunningly bad Q4 GDP report from Japan, with a -1.6% Q/Q result which turned into a -6.3% annualized number. Not only was that significantly worse than expected, but it was the worst outturn since the last time the Japanese government raised the GST in 2014. So, in their effort to be fiscally prudent, they blew an even bigger hole in their budget! But the yen didn’t really mind, as it remains a key safe haven, and while it weakened ever so slightly yesterday, this morning’s fear based markets has allowed it to recoup those losses and then some. So as I type, the yen is stronger by 0.15% today. Certainly, selling yen is a fraught operation in a market with as big a potential fear catalyst as currently exists.

Meanwhile, that other erstwhile growth engine, Germany, once again demonstrated that the idea of a rebound this year is on extremely shaky ground. Early this morning the ZEW surveys were released with the Expectations reading falling sharply to 8.7, while Current Situations fell to -15.7. While the numbers themselves have no independent meaning, both results were far worse than expected and crushed the modest rebound that had been seen in December. The euro has been under pressure since the release of the data, falling to a new low for the move and continuing its streak of down days, now up to 10 of the past twelve sessions, with the other two sessions closing essentially flat. The euro story has shown no signs of turning around on its own, and for the euro to stop declining we will need to see the dollar story change. Right now, that seems unlikely.

And generally speaking, the dollar is simply outperforming all other currencies. Versus the EMG bloc, the dollar is higher across the board, with not a single one of these currencies able to rally against the greenback. Today’s biggest decliners are the RUB (-0.6%) as oil prices fall, KRW (-0.5%) as concerns grow over Covid, and ZAR (-0.45%) as both commodity prices decline and global growth fears increase. In the G10 space, it should be no surprise that both AUD (-0.5%) and NZD (-0.7%) are the worst performers (China related) as well as NOK (-0.7%) as oil suffers over concerns of slowing global growth. It seems like we’ve heard this story before.

The one currency doing well today, other than the yen, is the British pound (+0.2%) as UK Employment data, released early this morning, was generally better than expected, with the 3M/3M Employment Change slipping a much less than expected 28K to 180K, a still quite robust number. Interestingly, yesterday saw the pound under pressure as PM Johnson’s Europe Advisor, David Frost, laid out the UK’s goals as ditching all EU social constructs and simply focusing on trade. That is at odds with the hinted at EU view, which is they want the UK to follow all their edicts even though they are no longer in the club. Look for more fireworks as we go forward on this subject.

Looking ahead to this week, the US data is generally second-tier, although we will see FOMC Minutes tomorrow.

Today Empire Manufacturing 5.0
Wednesday Housing Starts 1420K
  Building Permits 1450K
  PPI 0.1% (1.6% Y/Y)
  -ex food & energy 0.1% (1.3% Y/Y)
  FOMC Minutes  
Thursday Initial Claims 210K
  Philly Fed 11.0
Friday Leading Indicators 0.4%
  Existing Home Sales 5.45M

Source: Bloomberg

So lots of housing data, which given the interest rate structure should be pretty decent. Of course, the problem is the reason the interest rate structure is so attractive to home buyers is the plethora of problems elsewhere in the economy. In addition, we have seven Fed speakers during the rest of the week with a nice mix of hawks and doves. Although it seems unlikely that anybody will change their views, be alert to Dallas Fed President Kaplan’s comments tomorrow and Friday as he is the only FOMC member who has admitted that continuing to pump up the balance sheet could cause excesses in risk taking.

At this point, there is nothing on the horizon that indicates the dollar’s run is over. Regarding the euro, technically there is nothing between current levels and the early 2017 lows of 1.0341 although I would expect some congestion at 1.0500.

Good luck
Adf

No Panacea

Fiscal stimulus
Is no panacea, but
Welcome nonetheless

At least by markets
And politicians as well
If it buys them votes!

Perhaps the MMTer’s are right, fiscal rectitude is passé and governments that are not borrowing and spending massive amounts of money are needlessly harming their own countries. After all, what other lesson can we take from the fact that Japan, the nation with the largest debt/GDP ratio (currently 236%) has just announced they are going to borrow an additional ¥26 trillion ($239 billion) to spend in support of the economy, and the market response was a stock market rally and a miniscule rise in JGB yields of just 1bp. Meanwhile, the yen is essentially unchanged.

Granted, despite the fact that this equates to nearly 5% of the current GDP, given JGB interest rates are essentially 0.0% (actually slightly negative) it won’t cost very much on an ongoing basis. However, at some point the question needs to be answered as to how they will ever repay all that debt. It seems the most likely outcome will be some type of explicit debt monetization, where the BOJ simply tears up maturing bonds and leaves the cash in the economy, thus reducing the debt and maintaining monetary stimulus. However, macroeconomic theory explains following that path will result in significant inflation. And of course, that’s the crux of the MMT philosophy, print money aggressively until inflation picks up.

The thing is, every time this process has been followed in the past, it basically destroyed the guilty country. Consider Weimar Germany, Zimbabwe and even Venezuela today as three of the most famous examples. And while inflation in Japan is virtually non-existent right now, that does not mean it cannot rise quite rapidly in the future. The point is that, currently, the yen is seen as a safe haven currency due to its strong current account surplus and the fact that its net debt position is not terribly large. But the further down this path Japan travels, the more likely those features are to change and that will be a distinct negative for the currency. Of course, this process will take years to play out, and perhaps something else will come along to change the trajectory of these long term processes, but the idea that the yen will remain a haven forever needs to be constantly re-evaluated. Just not today!

In the meantime, markets remain in a buoyant mood as additional comments from the Chinese that both sides remain in “close contact”, implying a deal is near, has the bulls ascendant. So Tuesday’s fears are long forgotten and equity markets are rallying while government bond yields edge higher. As to the dollar, it is generally on its back foot this morning as well, keeping with the theme that risk is ‘on’.

Looking at specific stories, there are several of note today. Overnight, Australia released weaker than expected GDP figures which has reignited the conversation about the RBA cutting rates in Q1 and helped to weaken Aussie by 0.3% despite the USD’s overall weakness. Elsewhere in the G10, British pound traders continue to close out short positions as the polls, with just one week left before the election, continue to point to a Tory victory and with it, finality on the Brexit issue. My view continues to be that the market is buying pounds in anticipation of this outcome, and that once the election results are final, there will be a correction. It is still hard for me to see the pound much above 1.34. However, there are a number of analysts who are calling for 1.45 in the event of a strong Tory majority, so be aware of the differing viewpoints.

On the Continent, German Factory Order data disappointed, yet again, falling 0.4% rather than rising by a similar amount as expected. This takes the Y/Y decline to 5.5% and hardly bodes well for a rebound in Germany. However, the euro has edged higher this morning, up 0.15% and hovering just below 1.11, as we have seen a number of stories rehashing the comments of numerous ECB members regarding the idea that negative interest rates have reached their inflection point where further cuts would do more harm than good. With the ECB meeting next Thursday, expectations for further rate cuts have basically evaporated for the next year, despite the official guidance that more is coming. In other words, the market no longer believes the ECB can will ease policy further, and the euro is likely edging higher as that idea makes its way through the market. Nonetheless, I see no reason for the euro to trade much higher at all, especially as the US economy continues to outperform the Eurozone.

In the emerging markets, the RBI surprised the entire market and left interest rates on hold, rather than cutting by 25bps as universally expected. The rupee rallied 0.35% on the news as the accompanying comments implied that the recent rise in inflation was of more concern to the bank than the fact that GDP growth was slowing more rapidly than previously expected. In a similar vein, PHP is stronger by 0.5% this morning after CPI printed a bit higher than expected (1.3%) and the market assumed there is now less reason for the central bank to continue its rate cutting cycle thus maintaining a more attractive carry destination. On the other side of the ledger, ZAR is under pressure this morning, falling 0.5% after data releases showed the current account deficit growing more rapidly than expected while Electricity production (a proxy for IP) fell sharply. It seems that in some countries, fiscal rectitude still matters!

On the data front this morning, we see Initial Claims (exp 215K), Trade Balance (-$48.5B), Factory Orders (0.3%) and Durable Goods (0.6%, 0.6% ex transport). Yesterday we saw weaker than expected US data (ADP Employment rose just 67K and ISM Non-Manufacturing fell to 53.9) which has to be somewhat disconcerting for Chairman Powell and friends. If today’s slate of data is weak, and tomorrow’s NFP report underwhelms, I think that can be a situation where the dollar comes under more concerted pressure as expectations of further Fed rate cuts will build. But for now, I am still in the camp that the Fed is on hold, the data will be mixed and the dollar will hold its own, although is unlikely to rally much from here for the time being.

Good luck
Adf

Both Sides Connive

The trade war continues to drive
Discussion as both sides connive
To show they are right
And it’s their birthright
The other, access to deprive

Once again, discussion about the trade situation seems to be the dominant theme in market activity. Not only did we get comments from Chinese President Xi (“We didn’t initiate this trade war and this isn’t something we want. When necessary, we will fight back, but we have been working actively to try not to have a trade war,”) but we also got a raft of weak PMI data from around the world where, to an analyst, the blame was attributed to… the impact of the trade war.

For instance, Australia started off the data slump with Composite PMI falling to 49.5, below that magic 50.0 boom-bust level and endangering the ‘Lucky Country’s’ 27 year streak of growth with no recession. This outcome increased the talk that the RBA would soon be forced to cut rates again, or perhaps even consider QE, a road down which they have not yet traveled. Aussie, however, is little changed on the day although it has been trending steadily lower for the entire month of November.

Next we saw PMI data from the Eurozone and the UK, all of which was pretty awful. On the EZ side, the interesting thing was that the manufacturing readings were all slightly higher than expected (Germany 43.8, France 51.6, EZ 46.6) but the services data were all much worse driving the composite figures lower (Germany 49.2, France 52.7, and EZ 50.3). The point is that one of the key fears expressed lately has been that the global manufacturing slump would eventually bleed into the rest of the economy. This data is some powerful evidence that is exactly what is occurring. The euro, however, is little changed on the day having rallied on earlier confirmation that Germany did not enter a technical recession, but falling back after the PMI release.

In the UK, however, things were even worse, with all three PMI data points printing much lower than expected and all three with a 48 handle. These are the weakest readings since the immediate aftermath of the Brexit vote in June 2016, and speak to the increased uncertainty that led to the recently called election. In this case, the pound did suffer, falling 0.3% and earning the crown for worst performer of the day. There are just less than three weeks left before the election and thus far, it still appears that Boris is well placed to win. But stranger things have happened with regard to elections lately. Next week we will get to see the Tory manifesto, which you can be sure will be very different than Labour’s version. Once again, I look at that document and wonder why any politician would believe that promising higher taxes, on what appeared to be everyone, is seen as a winning position. I’m confident that Boris will not be proposing a tax program of that nature, although I’m sure there will be plenty of spending promises. However, all of these political machinations are only likely to have modest impacts on the value of the pound at this point. We will need to see the outcome of the election for the next move to be defined. I still believe that a Tory majority in Parliament will see the pound rally a few cents more, but that trading above 1.35 will be very difficult in the near term.

Inflation remains
Elusive in the distance
A crow at midnight

Japan released their latest inflation data overnight and it showed that, despite the 2% rise in the GST, to 10%, the general price level did virtually nothing. The headline number was unchanged at 0.2% while the core number did manage to tick up to…0.7%. Wow. If one were to evaluate the BOJ’s performance on an objective basis, something like how they have done achieving their inflation target, it strikes me that Kuroda-san would be deemed a colossal failure. This is not to imply that the job is easy, but he has been in the chair for more than six years at this point, and despite an extraordinary amount of monetary stimulus (growing the balance sheet from 32.3% of GDP to 104.2% of GDP) core CPI has risen only from -0.7% to +0.7%. Granted, that is not actual deflation, but there is certainly no reason to believe that the 2.0% target is ever going to be attainable. To his credit, I guess, he has been able to drive the yen lower by some 16% since he started (95.00 to 108.50) which has clearly helped Japanese corporate profitability but arguably not much else. I know I’m a bit of a heretic here, but perhaps the Japanese might consider another measure of what they want to achieve. Again I ask; do policy makers around the world really believe that their populations are keen to pay more for anything? I fear that a slavish pursuit of some macroeconomic model’s mooted outcome has resulted in creating more problems than it has fixed. Just sayin’.

A quick peek at the EMG bloc shows that no currency has moved even 0.2% today, which implies that there is nothing, at all, to discuss here. On the data front, yesterday’s Initial Claims data was higher than expected at 227K with a revision higher to the previous week’s print. This is a data point that is going to get increasing scrutiny going forward, because if it starts to trend higher, it could well signal the US economy is starting to suffer more than currently believed (or at least expressed) by the Fed and its members. And that means more rate cuts and the potential for a lower dollar. This morning’s only data point is Michigan Sentiment (exp 95.7) and mercifully we don’t hear from any more Fed speakers.

It is difficult to broadly characterize this morning’s market activity, with the dollar mixed, bond yields slightly lower but equity markets slightly higher. My take is that after a week of modest overall movements, and with the Thanksgiving holiday approaching next week, there is little reason to believe we will see any currency move more than a few ticks in either direction before we head home for the weekend.

Good luck and good weekend
Adf

 

Decidedly Slowed

In China they’ve reached a crossroad
As growth has decidedly slowed
The knock-on effects
Are not too complex
Watch markets, emerging, erode

Once again, the overnight data has disappointed with signs of further slowing in the global economy rampant. The headline was in China, where their big three data points; Fixed Asset Investment (5.2%), Industrial Production (4.7%) and Retail Sales (7.2%) all missed expectations badly. In fact, all of these are at or near historic low levels. But it was not just the Chinese who exposed economic malaise. Japanese GDP printed at just 0.2% in Q3, well below the expected 0.9% outcome. And how about Unemployment in Australia, which ticked higher to 5.3%, adding to concern over the economy Down Under and driving an increase in bets that the RBA will cut rates again next month. In fact, throughout Asia, all the data was worse than expected and that has had a negative impact on equity markets as well as most commodity markets.

Of course, adding to the economic concern are the ongoing protests in Hong Kong, which seemed to take a giant step forward (backward?) with more injuries, more disruption and the resulting closure of schools and work districts. Rumors of a curfew, or even intervention by China’s armed forces are just adding to the worries. It should be no surprise that we have seen a risk off attitude in these markets as equity prices fell (Nikkei -0.75%, Hang Seng -0.95%) while bonds rallied (Treasuries -5bps, JGB’s -3bps, Australian Treasuries -10bps), and currencies performed as expected with AUD -0.75% and JPY +0.3%. Classic risk-off.

Turning to Europe, Germany managed to avoid a technical recession, surprising one and all by releasing Q3 GDP at +0.1% although they did revise Q2 lower to -0.2%. While that is arguably good news, 0.4% annual growth in Germany is not nearly enough to support the Eurozone economy overall. And the bigger concern is that the ongoing manufacturing slump, which shows, at best, slight signs of stabilizing, but no signs of rebounding, will start to ooze into the rest of the data picture, weakening domestic activity throughout Germany and by extension throughout the entire continent.

The UK did nothing to help the situation with Retail Sales falling 0.3%, well below the expected 0.2% rise. It seems that the ongoing Brexit saga and upcoming election continue to weigh on the UK economy at this point. While none of this has helped the pound much, it is lower by 0.1% as I type, it has not had much impact overall. At this point, the election outcome remains the dominant story there. Along those lines, Nigel Farage has disappointed Boris by saying his Brexit party candidates will stand in all constituencies that are currently held by Labour. The problem for Boris is that this could well split the Tory vote and allow Labour to retain those seats even if a majority of voters are looking for Brexit to be completed. We are still four weeks away from the election, and the polls still give Boris a solid lead, 40% to 29% over Labour, but a great deal can happen between now and then. In other words, while I still expect a Tory victory and Parliament to pass the renegotiated Brexit deal, it is not a slam dunk.

Finally, it would not be appropriate to ignore Chairman Powell, who yesterday testified to a joint committee of Congress about the economy and the current Fed stance. It cannot be a surprise that he repeated the recent Fed mantra of; the economy is in a good place, monetary policy is appropriate, and if things change the Fed will do everything in its power to support the ongoing expansion. He paid lip service to the worries over the trade talks and Brexit and global unrest, but basically, he spent a lot of time patting himself on the back. At this point, the market has completely removed any expectations for a rate cut in December, and, in fact, based on the Fed funds futures market, there isn’t even a 50% probability of a cut priced in before next June.

The interesting thing about the fact that the Fed is clearly on hold for the time being is the coincident fact that the equity markets in the US continue to trade at or near record highs. Given the fact that earnings data has been flattish at best, there seems to be a disconnect between pricing in equity markets and in interest rate markets. While I am not forecasting an equity correction imminently, at some point those two markets need to resolve their differences. Beware.

Yesterday’s CPI data was interesting as core was softer than expected at 2.3% on the back of reduced rent rises, while headline responded to higher oil prices last month and was higher than expected at 1.8%. As to this morning, PPI (exp 0.3%, 0.2% core) and Initial Claims (215K) is all we get, neither of which should move the needle. Meanwhile, Chairman Powell testifies to the House Budget Committee and seven more Fed speakers will be at a microphone as well. But given all we have heard, it beggar’s belief any of them will change from the current tune of everything is good and policy is in the right place.

As to the dollar, it is marginally higher overall this morning, and has been trading that way for the past several sessions but shows no signs of breaking out. Instead, I expect that we will continue to push toward the top end of its recent trading range, and stall lacking impetus for the next leg in its movement. For that, we will need either a breakthrough or breakdown in the trade situation, or a sudden change in the data story. As long as things continue to show decent US economic activity, the dollar seems likely to continue its slow grind higher.

Good luck
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Flummoxed

Kuroda flummoxed
As inflation fails to rise
How low can rates go?

You know things are tough in Japan, at least for the BOJ, when a sales tax hike, that in the last go-round increased inflation by nearly two percentage points, had exactly zero impact on the latest CPI readings. Last night’s Tokyo CPI data was released at 0.4%, unchanged from the September data and well below the 0.7% expected. And that’s an annual number folks, not the monthly kind. It seems that the government’s efforts to help young families by reducing tuition for pre-school and kindergarten to zero was enough to offset the impact of the rise in the Goods and Services Tax, essentially the Japanese VAT. However, the upshot is that CPI inflation, at least in Tokyo which is seen as a harbinger for the nation as a whole, remains nonexistent. Now for the average Japanese family, one would think that is a good thing. After all, who wants the prices of the stuff they need to buy rising all the time. But for the BOJ, who doggedly continues to believe that unless inflation rises to 2.0% the economy will implode, it is merely the latest sign that central banks are out of ammunition.

The yen’s response to this ongoing futility was to rise ever so marginally, not quite 0.1%, but that has not changed its more recent trend. In the past two months, the yen has weakened a solid 4.4%. But the picture changes if you step a bit further back for more perspective. Over the past six months, since late April, the yen has actually strengthened nearly 3.0%. So, which is it; is the yen getting stronger or weaker? In fact, I would argue that it is doing neither, but rather the yen is in a major long-term consolidation pattern (a triangle formation for the technicians out there) and that barring a major exogenous shock like a GFC2, the yen is likely to continue trading in an even narrower range going forward, perhaps for as long as the next year. The thing is, these triangle patterns tend to resolve themselves with a very significant break-out move when they end. At this stage, there is no way to discern which direction that will follow, and , as I said, it is probably a year away, but it is quite realistic to expect that the doldrums we have experienced in the yen for the past many years is likely to end. Perhaps the US presidential election will be the catalyst to cause a change, at least the timing will be right.

For hedgers, the best advice I can offer is to extend the tenor of your hedges as much as you can. This is especially true for receivables hedgers, where the carry is in your favor. But the reality is that even a payables hedger needs to consider the benefits of hedging in an extremely low volatility environment as opposed to waiting until a breakout, which may result in the yen jumping higher by as much as 5%-10%, completely outweighing the current cost of carry.

Three Latin American nations
Have populist administrations
Brazil, on the right
Of late’s shining bright
But fear’s grown ‘round Argie’s relations

For the past two weeks, the story in Brazil has been one of unadulterated joy, at least for investors. The real has rallied more than 5.0% in that time as President Jair Bolsonaro, the right-wing firebrand, has been able to push pension reform through congress there. That has been warmly received by markets as it implies that Brazil’s long-term finances are likely to remain under control. The pension system had been massively underfunded and was far too generous relative to the government’s ability to pay. Correcting these problems is seen as crucial to allowing Brazil to move forward with other investments to help the nation’s economy and productivity. Again, a glance at the charts shows that USDBRL has formed a triple top formation and is already accelerating lower. Quite frankly, it would not surprise to see BRL strengthen to 3.70 before this movement is over.

Turning to Mexico, it too has performed extremely well over the past two months, rallying more than 5% during that time. It is interesting that the markets have been extremely patient with AMLO as, since his initial action to cancel the Mexico City Airport construction, which was seen in an extremely negative light, his policies have been far less disruptive than most investors feared. Clearly, Mexico has been a beneficiary of the ongoing US-China trade war as companies seek low cost manufacturing sites near the US and given the (still pending) USMCA trade agreement, there is more confidence that companies will be able to set up shop there with fewer repercussions.

However, as with the yen, I might argue that what we have seen over the past five years is an increasingly narrowing consolidation in the peso’s exchange rate, albeit with a tad more volatility attached. And the thing about this pattern is its culmination is likely to occur much sooner than that in the yen. A quick look at MXN’s PPP shows that the peso remains significantly undervalued vs. the dollar, and in truth vs. most currencies. All this points to the idea that barring any surprisingly anti-business actions from AMLO, the peso may be setting up for a much larger rally, especially with the carry benefits that continue to exist.

Argentina, on the other hand, with newly elected left-wing President Fernandez, has its work cut out for itself. If you recall, the preliminary vote back in August, saw the peso decline more than 35%, and while it was choppy for a bit, the price action of late has been for steady depreciation. It is too early to know what Fernandez will do, but given the dire straits in the Argentine economy, with inflation running north of 50% while growth is shrinking rapidly and the debt situation is untenable, it seems the path of least resistance is for ARS to continue to weaken.

A quick look at the majors sees the dollar generally firmer this morning as there is a mild risk-off sentiment in markets. However, the news moments ago that the Labour party agreed to an early election has helped bolster the pound specifically, and risk in general. I expect that the pound will now be reacting to the polls as it becomes clearer if Boris can win with a majority, or if he will go down to defeat and perhaps an even more beneficial outcome for the pound will arise, the withdrawal of Article 50. My money remains on a Johnson victory and a Brexit with the recently negotiated deal.

This morning we get two minor pieces of data, Case Shiller Home Prices (exp 2.10%) and Consumer Confidence (128.0). Yesterday we did see a weak Dallas Fed manufacturing index print, but equity markets made new highs. I can see little reason, beyond the ongoing Brexit story, for traders to alter their positions ahead of tomorrow’s FOMC meeting, and so anticipate another quiet day in the market.

Good luck
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