It cannot be very surprising
That Canada is compromising
Their views about trade
Thus now they have made
A deal markets find stabilizing
This morning, as the fourth quarter begins, arguably the biggest story is that Canada and the US have agreed terms to the trade pact designed to replace NAFTA. Canada held out to the last possible moment, but in the end, it was always clear that they are far too reliant on trade with the US to actually allow NAFTA to disintegrate without a replacement. The upshot is that there will be a new pact, awkwardly named the US-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) which is expected to be ratified by both Canada and Mexico quite easily, but must still run the gauntlet of the US Congress. In the end, it would be shocking if the US did not ratify this treaty, and I expect it will be completed with current estimates that it will be signed early next year. The market impact is entirely predictable and consistent with the obvious benefits that will accrue to both Canada and Mexico; namely both of those currencies have rallied sharply this morning with each higher by approximately 0.9%. I expect that both of these currencies will maintain a stronger tone vs. the dollar than others as the ending of trade concerns here will be a definite positive.
There is another trade related story this morning, although it does not entail a new trade pact. Rather, Chinese PMI data was released over the weekend with both the official number (50.8) and the Caixin small business number (50.0) falling far more sharply than expected. The implication is that the trade situation is beginning to have a real impact on the Chinese economy. This puts the Chinese government and the PBOC (no hint of independent central banking here) in a difficult position.
Much of China’s recent growth has been fueled by significant increases in leverage. Last year, the PBOC unveiled a campaign to seek to reduce this leverage, changing regulations and even beginning to tighten monetary policy. But now they are caught between a desire to add stability to the system by reducing leverage further (needing to tighten monetary policy); and a desire to address a slowing domestic economy starting to feel the pinch of the trade war with the US (needing to loosen monetary policy). It is abundantly clear that they will loosen policy further as the political imperative is to insure that GDP growth does not slow too rapidly during President Xi’s reign. The problem with this choice is that it will build up further instabilities in the economy with almost certain future problems in store. Of course, there is no way to know when these problems will manifest themselves, and so they will likely not receive much attention until such time as they explode. A perfect analogy would be the sub-prime mortgage crisis here ten years ago, where leading up to the collapse; every official described the potential problem as too small to matter. We all know how that worked out! At any rate, while the CNY has barely moved this morning, and in fact has remained remarkably stable since the PBOC stepped in six weeks ago to halt its weakening trend, it only makes sense that they will allow it to fall further as a pressure release valve for the economy.
Away from those two stories though, the FX market has been fairly dull. PMI data throughout the Eurozone was softer than expected, but not hugely so, and even though there are ongoing questions about the Italian budget situation, the euro is essentially unchanged this morning. In the past week, the single currency is down just under 2%, but my feeling is we will need to see something new to push us away from the 1.16 level, either a break in the Italy story or some new data or comments to alter views. The next big data print is Friday’s payroll report, but I expect we might learn a few things before then.
In the UK, while the Brexit deadline swiftly approaches, all eyes are now focused on the Tory party conference this week to see if there is a leadership challenge to PM May. Given that the PM’s ‘Chequers’ proposal has been dismissed by both the EU and half the Tory party, it seems they will need to find another way to move forward. While the best guess remains there will be some sort of fudge agreed to before the date, I am growing more concerned that the UK is going to exit with no deal in place. If that is what happens, the pound will be much lower in six-months’ time. But for today, UK Manufacturing PMI data was actually a surprising positive, rising to 53.8, and so the signals from the UK economy continue to be that it is not yet collapsing.
Away from those stories, though, I am hard pressed to find new and exciting news. As this is the first week of the month, there is a raft of data coming our way.
|ISM Prices Paid||71.0|
|Average Hourly Earnings||0.3% (2.8% Y/Y)|
|Average Weekly Hours||34.5|
On top of the payroll data, we hear from eight Fed speakers this week, including more comments from Chairman Powell tomorrow. At this point, however, there is no reason to believe that anything is going to change. The Fed remains in tightening mode and will raise rates again in December. The rest of the world continues to lag the US with respect to growth, and trade issues are likely to remain top of mind. While the USMCA is definitely a positive, its benefits will only accrue to Mexico and Canada as far as the currency markets are concerned. We will need to see some significant changes in the data stream or the commentary in order to alter the dollar’s trend. Until then, the dollar should maintain an underlying strong tone.