Caused by the Other

With tariffs now firmly in place
The market’s been keen to embrace
The idea that Xi
And Trump will agree
To terms when they meet face-to-face

But rhetoric lately has shown
That both Trump and Xi will condone
A slowdown in trade
That both men portrayed
As caused by the other, alone

Risk is, once again, in tatters as the fallout from the US increase in tariffs starts to feed through the market. As of midnight last Thursday, US tariffs on $200 billion of goods rose to 25%. This morning, a list of the other $325 billion of goods that may be subject to tariffs will be published with a target date of 30-days before imposition. Meanwhile, China continues to try to figure out how best to respond. Their problem, in this scenario, is they don’t import that much stuff from the US, and so trying to determine what is an ‘equal’ offset is complicated. However, I am confident that within the next day or two, they will publish their response. Markets around the world have felt the fallout, with equity prices everywhere under pressure, EMG currencies, especially, feeling the heat, and Treasury bonds and German bunds remaining in vogue.

As of now, it appears the situation is unlikely to improve in the short-term. The US remains miffed that the Chinese seemingly reneged on previously agreed terms. Meanwhile, the Chinese are adamant that they will not kowtow to the US and be forced to legislate the agreed changes, instead insisting that administrative guidance is all that is needed to insure compliance with any terms. They deem this desire for a legislated outcome as impinging on their sovereignty. Once again, the issue falls back to the idea that while the US consistently accused the Chinese of IP theft and forced technology transfer, the Chinese don’t see it that way, and as such, don’t believe they need to change laws that don’t exist. Whatever the merits of either sides views, the end result is that it seems far less clear that a trade deal between the two is going to be signed anytime soon.

The markets question is just how much of this year’s global equity market rally has been driven by the assumption that trade issues would disappear and how much was based on a response to easier central bank policies. The risk for markets is not only that growth is negatively impacted, but that inflation starts to rise due to the tariffs. This would put the central banks in a tough spot, trying to determine which problem to address first. Famously, in 1979, when Paul Volcker was appointed Fed Chairman, he immediately took on inflation, raising short term interest rates significantly to slay that demon, but taking the US (and global) economy into recession as a result. It strikes me that today’s crop of central bank heads does not have the wherewithal to attack that problem in the same manner as Volcker. Rather, the much easier, and politically expedient, response will be to try to revive the economy while allowing inflation to run hot. This is especially the case since we continue to see serious discussions as to whether inflation is ‘dead’. FWIW, inflation is not dead!

At any rate, for now, the trade story is going to be the key story in every market, and the upshot is that the odds of any central bank turning more hawkish have diminished even further.

Looking at overnight activity, there was virtually no data to absorb with just Norwegian GDP growth printing slightly softer than expected, although not enough to change views that the Norgesbank is going to be raising rates next month. Broadly speaking, the dollar is quite firm, with the biggest loser being the Chinese yuan, down 0.9%, and that movement dragging down AUD (-0.45%) as a G10 proxy. But while other G10 currencies have seen more limited movement, the EMG bloc is really under pressure. For instance, MXN has fallen 0.6%, INR 0.75%, RUB, 0.5% and KRW 1.2%. All of this is trade related and is likely just the beginning of the fallout. Once China publishes its list of retaliatory efforts, I would expect further weakness in this space.

Equity markets are suffering everywhere, with Shanghai (-1.2%) and the Nikkei (-0.7%) starting the process, the DAX (-0.8%) and CAC (-0.6%) following in their footsteps and US futures pointing lower as well (both Dow and S&P futures -1.3%). Treasury yields have fallen to 2.43% and are now flat with 3-month Treasury bill rates, reigniting concerns over future US growth, and commodity prices are feeling the strain as well on overall growth concerns.

Turning to the data this week, there is a modicum of news, with Retail Sales likely to be seen as the most important:

Tuesday NFIB Business Optimism 102.3
Wednesday Retail Sales 0.2%
  -ex autos 0.7%
  Capacity Utilization 78.7%
  IP 0.1%
  Empire State Mfg 8.5
Thursday Initial Claims 220K
  Housing Starts 1.205M
  Building Permits 1.29M
  Philly Fed 9.0
Friday Michigan Sentiment 97.5

We also see the housing story and hear from another five Fed speakers across seven speeches this week. However, as we learned last week, pretty much the entire Fed is comfortable with their patient stance in the belief that growth is solid and inflation will eventually head to their target of 2.0%.

Add it all up and there is no reason to believe that the trends from last week will change, namely further pressure on equity markets and commodities, with the dollar and Treasuries the beneficiaries.

Good luck
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Things Changed

The reason the stock market fell-a
Is Goldi (locks) turned to Cinderella
At Midnight things changed
as tariffs arranged
By Trump, forced stock owners to sell-a

Please forgive my poetic license, but it is, after all, just a poem!

Waiting to See

At midnight the US imposed
The tariffs that Trump had disclosed
We’re waiting to see
How President Xi
Responds, or if China’s now hosed

It’s all about the tariffs this morning as the US increased the tariff rate on $200 billion of Chinese imports to 25% as of midnight last night. China has promised to retaliate but has not yet announced what they will do. One of the problems they have is they don’t import that much stuff from the US, so they cannot match it exactly. There was an unintentionally humorous article in Bloomberg this morning that tried to outline the ‘powerful’ tools China has to respond; namely selling US Treasuries, allowing the CNY to weaken further, or stop buying US soybeans. The humor stemmed from the fact that they basically destroyed their own arguments on the first two, leaving just the soybean restriction as potentially viable and even that is problematic.

Consider the Treasury sales first. As the Chinese own ~$1.1 trillion, if they sold a significant chunk, they would almost certainly drive US yields higher as Treasury prices fell. But two problems with this are; they would undermine the value of whatever bonds they retained and more problematically, what else would they do with the dollars? After all, the Treasury market is pretty much the only one that is large enough to handle that type of volume on a low risk basis. I guess they could convert the dollars to euros and buy Italian BTP’s (there are a lot of those outstanding) but their risk profile would get significantly worse. And of course, selling all those dollars would certainly weaken the dollar, which would not help the Chinese economy one bit.

On the flip side, allowing the renminbi to weaken sharply presents an entirely different problem, the fact that the Chinese are terrified that they would lose control of the capital flow situation if it weakened too far. Remember in 2015, when the Chinese created a mini-devaluation of just 1.5%, it triggered a massive outflow as USDCNY approached 7.00. The Chinese people have no interest in holding their assets in a sharply depreciating currency, and so were quick to sell as much as they could. The resultant capital flows cost China $1 trillion in FX reserves to prevent further weakness in the currency. Given we are only 2% below that level in the dollar right now, it seems to me the Chinese will either need to accept massive outflows and a destabilizing weakening in the renminbi, or more likely, look for another response.

The final thought was to further restrict soybean imports from the US. While the Chinese can certainly stop that trade instantly, the problems here are twofold. First, they need to find replacement supplies, as they need the soybeans regardless of where they are sourced, and second, given the Swine virus that has decimated the pig herds in China, they need to find more sources of protein for their people, not fewer. So, no pork and less soybeans is not a winning combination for Xi. The point is, while US consumers will likely feel the pressure from increased tariff rates via higher prices, the Chinese don’t have many easy responses.

And let’s talk about US prices for a moment. Shouldn’t the Fed be ecstatic to see something driving prices higher? After all, they have been castigating themselves for ‘too low’ inflation for the past seven years. They should be cheering on the President at this stage! But seriously, yesterday’s PPI data was released softer than expected (2.2%, 2.4% core) and as much as both Fed speakers and analysts try to convince us that recently declining measured inflation is transitory, the market continues to price rate cuts into the futures curve. This morning brings the CPI data (exp 2.1%, 2.1% core) but based on data we have seen consistently from around the world, aside from the oil price rally, there is scant evidence that inflation is rising. The only true exceptions are Norway, where the oil driven economy is benefitting greatly from higher oil prices, and the disasters of Argentina and Turkey, both of which have tipped into classic demand-pull inflation, where too much money is chasing too few goods.

Turning to market performance, last night saw the Shanghai Composite rally 3.1% after the imposition of tariffs, which is an odd response until you understand that the government aggressively bought stocks to prevent a further decline. The rest of Asia was mixed with the Nikkei lower by a bit and the KOSPI higher by a bit. European shares are modestly higher this morning, on average about 0.5%, in what appears to be a ‘bad news is good’ scenario. After all, French IP fell more than expected (-0.9%) and Italian IP fell more than expected (-1.4%). Yes, German Trade data was solid, but there is still scant evidence that the Eurozone is pulling out of its recent malaise so weaker data encourages traders to believe further policy ease is coming.

In the FX market, there has been relatively little movement in any currency. The euro continues to trade either side of 1.12, the pound either side of 1.30 and the yen either side of 110.00. It is very difficult to get excited about the FX market given there is every indication that the big central banks are well ensconced in their current policy mix with no changes on the horizon. That means that both the Fed and the ECB are on hold (although we will be finding out about those TLTRO’s soon) while both the BOJ and PBOC continue to ease policy. In the end, it turns out the increased tariffs were not that much of a shock to the system, although if the US imposes tariffs on the rest of Chinese imports, I expect that would be a different story.

This morning we hear from Brainerd, Bostic and Williams, although at this point, patience in policy remains the story. The inflation data mentioned above is the only data we get (although Canadian employment data is released for those of you with exposures there), and while US equity futures are tilted slightly lower at this time, it feels like the market is going to remain in the doldrums through the weekend. That is, of course, unless there is a shocking outturn from the CPI data. Or a trade deal, but that seems pretty remote right now.

Good luck and good weekend
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So Ended the Equity Slump

There once was a president, Trump
Who sought a great stock market jump
He reached out to Xi
Who seemed to agree
So ended the equity slump

The story of a single phone call between Presidents Trump and Xi was all it took to change global investor sentiment. Last evening it was reported that Trump and Xi spoke at length over the phone, discussing the trade situation and North Korea. According to the Trump, things went very well, so much so that he requested several cabinet departments to start putting together a draft trade agreement with the idea that something could be signed at the G20 meeting later this month in Buenos Aires. (As an aside, if something is agreed there it will be the first time something useful ever came out of a G20 meeting!) The market response was swift and sure; buy everything. Equity markets exploded in Asia, with Shanghai rallying 2.7% and the Hang Seng up over 4%. In Europe the rally is not quite as robust, but still a bit more than 1% on average across the board, and US futures are pointing higher as well, with both S&P and Dow futures higher by just under 1% as I type.

I guess this answers the question about what was driving the malaise in equity markets seen throughout October. Apparently it was all about trade. And yet, there are still many other things that might be of concern. For example, amid a slowdown in global growth, which has become more evident every day, we continue to see increases in debt outstanding. So more leverage driving less growth is a major long-term concern. In addition, the rise of populist leadership throughout the world is another concern as historically, populists don’t make the best long-term economic decisions, rather they are focused on the here and now. Just take a look at Venezuela if you want to get an idea of what the end game may look like. My point is that while a resolution of the US-China trade dispute would be an unalloyed positive, it is not the only thing that matters when it comes to the global economy and the value of currencies.

Speaking of currencies lets take a look at just how well they have performed vs. the dollar in the past twenty-four hours. Starting with the euro, since the market close on October 31, it has rallied 1.2% despite the fact that the data released in the interim has all been weaker than expected. Today’s Manufacturing PMI data showed that Germany and France both slowed more than expected while Italy actually contracted. And yet the euro is higher by 0.45% this morning. It strikes me that Signor Draghi will have an increasingly difficult time describing the risks to the Eurozone economy as “balanced” if the data continues to print like today’s PMI data. I would argue the risks are clearly to the downside. But none of that was enough to stop the euro bulls.

Meanwhile, the pound has rallied more than 2% over the same timeline, although here the story is quite clear. As hopes for a Brexit deal increase, the pound will continue to outperform its G10 brethren, and there was nothing today to offset those hopes.

Highlighting the breadth of the sentiment change, AUD is higher by more than 2.5% since the close on Halloween as a combination of rebounding base metal prices and the trade story have been more than sufficient to get the bulls running. If the US and China do bury the hatchet on trade, then Australia may well be the country set to benefit most. Reduced trade tensions should help the Chinese economy find its footing again and given Australia’s economy is so dependent on exports to China, it stands to reason that Australia will see a positive response as well.

But the story is far more than a G10 story, EMG currencies have exploded higher as well. CNY, for example is higher by 0.85% this morning and more than 1.6% in the new month. Certainly discussion of breeching 7.00 has been set to the back burner for now, although I continue to believe it will be the eventual outcome. We’ve also seen impressive response in Mexico, where the peso has rallied 1.2% overnight and more than 2% this month. And this is despite AMLO’s decision to cancel the biggest infrastructure project in the country, the new Mexico City airport.

Other big EMG winners overnight include INR (+1.3%), KRW (+1.1%), IDR (+1.1%), TRY (+0.8%) and ZAR (+0.5%). The point is that the dollar is under universal pressure this morning as we await today’s payroll report. Now arguably, this pressure is simply a partial retracement of what has been very steady dollar strength that we’ve seen over the past several months.

Turning to the data, here are current expectations for today:

Nonfarm Payrolls 190K
Private Payrolls 183K
Manufacturing Payrolls 15K
Unemployment Rate 3.7%
Average Hourly Earnings (AHE) 0.2% (3.1% Y/Y)
Average Weekly Hours 34.5
Trade Balance -$53.6B
Factory Orders 0.5%

I continue to expect that the AHE number is the one that will gain the most scrutiny, as it will be seen as the best indicator of the ongoing inflation debate. A strong print there could easily derail the equity rally as traders increase expectations that the Fed will tighten even faster, or at least for a longer time. But absent that type of result, I expect that the market’s euphoria is pretty clear today, so further USD weakness will accompany equity strength and bond market declines.

Good luck and good weekend
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More Trouble is Brewing

The PMI data last night
From China highlighted their plight
More trouble is brewing
While Xi keeps pursuing
The policies to get things right

Any questions about whether the trade conflict between the US and China was having an impact on the Chinese economy were answered last night when the latest PMI readings were released. The Manufacturing PMI fell to 50.2, it’s lowest level in more than two years and barely above the expansion/contraction level of 50.0. Even more disconcertingly for the Chinese, a number of the sub-indices notably export sales and employment, fell further below that 50.0 level (to 46.9 and 48.1 respectively), pointing to a limited probability of a rebound any time soon. At the same time, the Services PMI was also released lower than expected, falling to 53.9, its lowest level since last summer. Here, too, export orders and employment numbers fell (to 47.8 and 48.9 respectively), indicating that the economic weakness is quite broad based.

Summing up, it seems safe to say that growth in China continues to slow. One question I have is how is it possible that when the Chinese release their GDP estimates, the quarter-to-quarter movement is restricted to 0.1% increments? After all, elsewhere in the world, despite much lower headline numbers (remember China is allegedly growing at 6.5% while Europe is growing at 2.0% and the US at 3.5%), the month-to-month variability is much greater. Simple probability would anticipate that the variance in China’s data would be higher than in the rest of the world. My point is that, as in most things to do with China, we don’t really know what is happening there other than what they tell us and that is like relying on a pharmaceutical salesman to prescribe your medicine. There are several independent attempts ongoing to get a more accurate reading of GDP growth in China, with measures of electricity utilization or copper imports seen as key data that is difficult to manipulate, but they all remain incomplete. And it seems highly unlikely that President Xi, who has been focused on improving the economic lot of his country, will ever admit that the growth figures are being manipulated. But I remain skeptical of pretty much all the data that they provide.

At any rate, the impact on the renminbi continues to be modestly negative, with the dollar touching another new high for the move, just below 6.9800, in the overnight session. This very gradual weakening trend seems to be the PBOC’s plan for now, perhaps in order to make a move through 7.00 appear less frightening if it happens very slowly. I expect that it will continue for the foreseeable future especially as long as the Fed remains on track to tighten policy further while the PBOC searches for more ways to ease policy without actually cutting interest rates. Look for another reserve requirement ratio cut before the end of the year as well as a 7 handle on USDCNY.

Turning to the euro, data this morning showed that Signor Draghi has a bit of a challenge ahead of him. Eurozone inflation rose to 2.2% with the core reading rising to 1.1%, both slightly firmer than expected. The difference continues to be driven by energy prices, but the concern comes from the fact that GDP growth in the Eurozone slowed more than expected last quarter. Facing a situation where growth is slowing and inflation rising is every central banker’s nightmare scenario, as the traditional remedies for each are exactly opposite policies. And while the fluctuations are hardly the stuff of a disaster, the implication is that Europe may be reaching its growth potential at a time when interest rates remain negative and QE is still extant. The risk is that the removal of those policies will drive the Eurozone back into a much slower growth scenario, if not a recession, while inflation continues to creep higher. It is data of this nature, as well as the ongoing political dramas, that inform my views that the ECB will maintain easier policy for far longer than the market currently believes. And this is why I remain bearish on the euro.

Yesterday the pound managed to trade to its lowest level since the post-Brexit vote period, but it has bounced a bit this morning, +0.35%. That said, the trend remains lower for the pound. We are now exactly five months away from Brexit and there is still no resolution for the Irish border issue. Every day that passes increases the risk that there will be no deal, which will certainly have a decidedly negative impact on the UK economy and the pound by extension. Remember, too, that even if the negotiators agree a deal, it still must be ratified by 28 separate parliaments, which will be no easy task in the space of a few months. As long as this is the trajectory, the risk of a sharp decline in the pound remains quite real. Hedgers take note.

Elsewhere, the BOJ met last night and left policy unchanged as they remain no closer to achieving their 2.0% inflation goal today than they were five years ago when they started this process. However, the market has become quite accustomed to the process and as such, the yen is unchanged this morning. At this time, yen movement will be dictated by the interplay between risk scenarios and the Fed’s rate hike trajectory. Yen remains a haven asset, and in periods of extreme market stress is likely to perform well, but at the same time, as the interest rate differential increasingly favors the dollar, yen strength is likely to be moderated. In other words, it is hard to make a case for a large move in either direction in the near term.

Away from those three currencies, the dollar appears generally firmer, but movement has not been large. Turning to the data front, yesterday’s releases showed that home prices continue to ebb slightly in the US while Consumer Confidence remains high. This morning brings the first inklings of the employment situation with the ADP report (exp 189K) and then Chicago PMI (60.0) coming at 9:45. Equity futures are pointing higher as the market looks to build on yesterday’s modest rally. All the talk remains about how October has been the worst month in equity markets all year, but in the broad scheme of things, I would contend that, at least in the US, prices remain elevated compared to traditional valuation benchmarks like P/E ratios. At any rate, it seems unlikely that either of today’s data points will drive much FX activity, meaning that the big trend of a higher dollar is likely to dominate, albeit in a gradual fashion.

Good luck
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A Narrative Challenge

From Europe, the data released
Showed growth there has clearly decreased
For Draghi this poses
(What everyone knows is)
A narrative challenge, at least

Once upon a time there was a group of nations that came together in an effort to reap the theoretical benefits of closely adhering to the same types of economic policies. They believed that by linking together, they would create a much larger ‘domestic’ market, and therefore would be able to compete more effectively on the global stage. They even threw away their own currencies and created a single currency on which to depend. Under the guidance of their largest and most successful member, this currency was managed by a completely independent central bank, so they could never be accused of printing money recklessly. And after a few initial hiccups, this group generally thrived.

But then one day, clouds arose on the horizon, where from across the great ocean, a storm (now known as the Great financial crisis) blew in from the west. At first it appeared that this group of nations would weather the storm pretty well. But quickly these nations found out that their own banks had substantial exposure to the key problem that precipitated the storm, real estate investment in the US. Suddenly they were dragged into the maelstrom and their economies all weakened dramatically. The after effects of this included questions about whether a number of these countries would be able to continue to repay their outstanding debt. This precipitated the next crisis, where the weakest members of the club, the PIIGS, all saw their financing costs skyrocket as investors no longer wanted to accept the risk of repayment. This had the added detriment of weakening those nations’ banks further, as they had allocated a significant portion of their own balance sheets to buying home country debt. (The very debt investors were loath to own because of the repayment risks.)

Just when things reached their nadir, and the very weakest piggy looked like it was about to leave the group, a knight in shining armor rode to the rescue, promising to do “whatever it takes” to prevent the system from collapsing and the currency from breaking up. Being a knight in good standing, he lived up to those words and used every monetary policy trick known to mankind in order to save the day. These included cutting interest rates not just to zero, but below; force-feeding interest-free loans to the banks so that that they could on lend that money to companies throughout the group; and finally buying up as much sovereign, and then corporate, debt as they could, regardless of the price.

Time passed (five years) and that shining knight was still doing all those same things which helped avoid the worst possible outcomes, but didn’t really get the group’s economy growing as much as hoped. In fact, it seems that last year was the best it was going to get, where growth reached 2.5%. But now there are new storm clouds brewing, both from the West as well as from within, and the growth narrative has changed. And it appears this new narrative may not have a happy ending.

Data released this morning showed that GDP growth in Italy was nil, matching Germany’s performance, and helping to drag Eurozone growth down to 0.2% for Q3, half the expected rate. French growth, while weaker than expected at 0.4%, was at least positive. In addition, a series of confidence and sentiment indicators all demonstrated weakness describing a situation where not only has the recent performance been slipping, but expectations for the future are weakening as well. It can be no surprise that the euro has slipped further on the news, down 0.2% this morning and continuing its recent trend. During the month of October, the single currency has fallen more than 2.2%, and quite frankly, there doesn’t appear to be any reason in the short run for that to change.

What may change, though, is Signor Draghi’s tune if Eurozone growth data continues to weaken. It will be increasingly difficult for Draghi to justify ending QE and eventually raising rates if the economy is truly slowing. Right now, most analysts are saying this is a temporary thing, and that growth will rebound in Q4, but with the ongoing trade fight between the US and China weakening the Chinese economy, as well as the Fed continuing to raise interest rates and reduce dollar liquidity in global markets, it is quite realistic to believe that there will be no reprieve. And none of that includes the still fragile Italian budget situation as well as the potential for a ‘hard’ Brexit, both of which are likely to negatively impact the euro. And don’t get me started about German politics and how the end of the Merkel era could be an even bigger problem.

The point is, there is still no good reason to believe the dollar’s rally has ended. Speaking of Brexit, the pound is under pressure this morning, down -0.35%, as the market absorbs the most recent UK budget, where austerity has ended while growth is slowing. Of course, everything in the UK is still subject to change depending on the Brexit outcome, but as yet, there has been no breakthrough on the Irish border issue.

As to the rest of the G10, Aussie and Kiwi both benefitted from a bounce in the Chinese stock market, at least that’s what people are talking about. However, it makes little sense to me that a tiny bounce there would have such a big impact. Rather, I expect that both currencies will cede at least some of those gains before the day is done. Meanwhile, the yen has softened, which has been attributed to a risk-on sentiment there, and in fairness, Treasury yields have risen as well, but the rest of the risk clues are far less clear.

Speaking of China, the PBOC fixed the renminbi at a new low for the move, 6.9724, which promptly saw it trade even closer to 7.00, although it is now essentially unchanged on the day. The market talk is that traders are waiting for the meeting between Presidents Trump and Xi, later this mornth, to see if a further trade war can be averted. If tensions ease in the wake of the meeting, look for USDCNY to slowly head lower, but if there is no breakthrough, a move through 7.00 would seem imminent.

And that’s really it for this morning. Yesterday’s US data showed PCE right at 2.0% for both headline and core, while Personal Spending rose 0.4%, as expected. Today’s data brings only the Case-Shiller Home Price Index (exp 5.8%) and Consumer Confidence (136.0), neither of which is likely to move markets. In addition, the Fed is now in its quiet period, so no more Fed speak until the meeting next week. Equity futures are pointing slightly higher, but that is no guarantee of how the day proceeds. In the end, it is hard to make a case for a weaker dollar quite yet.

Good luck
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Unwavering

Said Xi, our support is “unwavering”
For stocks, which of late have been quavering
A rally ensued
The result, which imbued
A feeling the bulls have been savoring

Make no mistake about it, while President Xi Jinping is ‘president-for-life’ in China, and the most powerful leader since Deng Xiaoping, it turns out that the stock market is more powerful still. Despite last night’s 4% rally by the Shanghai Index, the market remains 25% lower than the highs seen in January. On Friday, we heard from a number of Chinese financial officials, each of them explaining how the government would support the market, and saw quasi-official purchases by Chinese brokerage firms. Over the weekend, President Xi, in a speech, promised a cut in personal income taxes as well as “unwavering” support for state owned enterprises. In other words, the combination of the trade spat with the US and the government’s previous efforts to deflate the real estate bubble by tightening liquidity and cracking down on non-bank financing seems to have been too much for Xi to bear. The equity market there has become too important to Chinese consumer sentiment to be ignored by the government, and a nearly 30% decline during the past nine months has really increased the pressure on Xi and his comrades. Since a key underpinning of Xi’s power is continued strong economic growth, the market signals had become too great to ignore. Hence the weekend actions, which also included promises of further tax cuts in the VAT rate, and the all-out effort to not merely halt the equity market decline, but reverse it.

For the moment, it has worked, with global equity markets responding favorably to the Chinese lead and risk being more warmly embraced by traders, if not long-term investors. European equity markets are higher, Treasury prices are falling, except in Italy (a truly high risk asset these days) where yields on the 10-year BTP have fallen 17bps today. Meanwhile, the dollar is little changed, having been slightly softer earlier in the session but now showing signs of life. The renminbi is also little changed this morning, continuing to hover near 6.94, while the PBOC looks on nervously. It has become increasingly apparent that regardless of the trade situation, there is very limited appetite to allow USDCNY to trade to 7.00 or beyond right now, as the fear of an uptick in capital outflows remains palpable. Although, eventually, I think that is exactly what will happen, it appears that the PBOC is going to allow only a very slow movement in that direction.

Away from China, the other ‘good’ news of the day was from Italy, where Moody’s cut the sovereign debt rating one notch to Baa3, its lowest investment grade, and adjusted the outlook to stable. This downgrade had been widely expected, but fears had been growing that it could actually be a two notch downgrade, into junk status, which would have resulted in forced selling of Italian debt by funds with mandates to only invest in investment grade bonds. The confirmation of a stable outlook has resulted in widespread relief by the market, although Standard & Poors will release their newest report next week, also slated to be a downgrade, but also expected (hoped?) to be a single notch and to remain in investment grade territory. For now, the result has been a huge rally in Italian bonds, with yields falling 14bps to 3.44% and the spread over German bunds declining to 298bps, its first time below 300 in two weeks. The thing is, there has been no indication that the Italians are going to alter their budget to meet EU requirements, and that is what started this latest round of problems.

Elsewhere in Europe Brexit remains the biggest unknown, with a deal still far from concluded. The key issue is still the Ireland situation and the competing demands for no hard Irish/Northern Irish border vs. the willingness to allow Northern Ireland to have a completely different set of trading rules than the rest of the UK. Over the weekend, PM May seemed to signal some willingness to move toward an EU suggested solution, but that is likely to imperil her tenure as PM given the strong resistance by hard-line Brexiteers. The pound is the worst performing G10 currency this morning, down 0.3%, but my sense is that for a substantive move to occur we will need to get a clear signal one way or the other, and that does not look imminent.

Another issue, which is in the background right now, but will start to become more interesting as we head into 2019, is the funding status of Eurozone banks that took advantage of the TLTRO financing during the Eurozone bond crisis. That cheap funding is set to mature beginning next year, and given the ECB’s stated goals of ending QE and eventually returning interest rates back to a more normal level, it means that bank funding costs throughout Europe are set to rise, and rise sharply. This will impact regulatory issues enacted in the wake of the financial crisis, as once those loans have less than 1-year remaining in them, they no longer count as long term capital. The point is that while the Eurozone economy has been recovering, a sharp rise in bank financing costs could easily undermine recent strength and force the ECB to reconsider the trajectory of tighter policy. Easier than expected ECB monetary policy would definitely weaken the single currency. This is not an issue for today, but we need to keep an eye out for potential concerns going forward.

Turning to the data story, this week doesn’t have much, but it does include the first look of Q3 GDP growth in the US, which could be critical for both markets and the upcoming elections. We also see New Home Sales, the last of the housing data, which thus far, has been quite weak.

Wednesday New Home Sales 625K
  Fed’s Beige Book  
Thursday Initial Claims 214K
  Durable Goods -1.0%
  -ex Transport +0.5%
  Goods Trade Balance -$74.9B
Friday Q3 GDP 3.3%
  Michigan Sentiment 99

On top of the GDP we have six Fed speakers, but there seems to be a pretty uniform set of expectations that they are on the right path with gradual rate increases the correct policy for now. In other words, don’t look for any new information there.

That sets us up for a week dependent on any changes in several ongoing stories, notably the Brexit negotiations, the Italian budget situation and Chinese market intervention. For now the signs are that the Chinese will continue to support things while Brexit will go nowhere. In the end, Italy has the best chance to rock the boat further, although I doubt that will occur this week. So look for a fairly quiet FX market, with the dollar remaining in its trading range waiting the next catalyst of note.

Good luck
Adf