Times of Trouble

In times of trouble
The yen continues to be
Mighty like an oak

Pop quiz! What percentage of the workforce is working at their primary site vs. home or an alternate site? Please respond with where you’re working and your guesstimates. Will publish results of this (completely unscientific) survey on Monday, March 16.

As markets around the world continue to melt down, investors everywhere are looking for a haven to retain capital. For the past 100 years, US Treasuries have been the number one destination in markets. Interestingly, the past two days saw Treasuries sell off aggressively. I think the move was initially based on the relief rally seen on Tuesday, but at this point, the fact that Treasury prices fell alongside yesterday’s stock rout can only be explained by the idea that institutions that need cash are selling the only liquid assets they have, and Treasuries remain quite liquid. And to be clear, 10-year yields are lower by 18bps this morning as that bout of selling seems to have passed and the haven demand has returned in spades.

But since the financial crisis, the second most powerful haven asset has been the Japanese yen. Despite the fact that the nation has basically been in an economic funk for two decades, it continues to run a significant current account surplus. As a consequence, Japanese external investment is huge and when fear is in the air, that money comes running back home. The evolution of the coronavirus spread can be seen in the yen’s movement as in the middle of February, when Japan itself was dealing with the growth in infections, the yen weakened to a point not seen in nearly a year. Since then, however, the yen has strengthened 7.5% (with a peak gain of 9.8% seen Monday) as flows have been decidedly one way. This morning the yen has appreciated 0.7% from yesterday’s close and quite frankly, until the pandemic starts to ebb, I see no reason for it to stop appreciating. Par will pose a short-term psychological support for the dollar, but if this goes on for another two months, 95 is in the cards. With that in mind, though, for all yen receivables hedgers, zero premium collars are looking awfully good here. Let’s talk, at the very least you should be apprised of the pricing.

Interestingly, the Swiss franc has had a somewhat less impressive performance despite its historic haven characteristics. While it has appreciated 4.5% in the same time frame, it has been having much more trouble during the latest equity market decline. And I think that is the reason why. Famously, the Swiss National Bank has 20% of its balance sheet invested in individual equities. This is a very different investment philosophy than virtually every other central bank. The genesis of this came about when the SNB was intervening on a daily basis while trying to cap the franc and ultimately needed a place to put the dollars and euros they were buying. I guess the view was stocks only go up, so let’s make some money too. Whatever the reason, as of December 31 the USD value of their equity portfolio was about $97.6 billion. I’m pretty confident that number is a lot lower today, and perhaps the idea about Swiss franc strength is being called into question. The franc is unchanged today and has been generally unimpressive for the past week.

Meanwhile, all eyes this morning are on Madame Lagarde and the ECB who will be announcing their latest policy initiatives shortly. While it is clearly expected they will do something, other than a 10bp cut in the deposit rate, to -0.60%, there is a great deal of uncertainty. Expectations range from expanding the TLTRO program with much more aggressive rates, as low as -2.00%, to a significant increase in QE to capping government bond yields. All of that would be remarkably dramatic and likely have a short-term positive impact on markets. But will it last? My sense is that until the Fed announces next week, and at this point I think they cut 100bps, markets will still be on edge. After all, the world continues to revolve around USD funding, and in times of crisis, foreign entities need access to USD liquidity. Look for more repo, more swap lines and maybe even a lending scheme although I don’t think the Fed can do something like that within their mandate.

Overall, the dollar is performing as the number two currency haven, after the yen, and has rallied sharply against commodity currencies in both the G10 and EMG spaces. For example, with oil down 5% this morning, NOK has fallen 3.6%, but both AUD and SEK are lower by 1.5% as well. In the emerging markets, Mexican peso continues to be the market’s whipping boy, falling a further 3.2% as I type, which takes its decline since the beginning of the month to 12.2%. meanwhile, the RUB is in similarly dire straits (-2.75% today, -11.5% in March) and we are seeing every single EMG currency lower vs. the dollar today. These are the nations that are desperate for USD liquidity and you can expect their currencies to continue to decline for the foreseeable future.

At this point, data is an afterthought, but it is still being released. Yesterday saw CPI rise a tick more than expected but the more interesting data point was Mortgage Applications, which jumped 55.4% as mortgage rates collapse alongside Treasury yields. This morning brings Initial Claims (exp 220K) and PPI (1.8%, 1.7% core) with far more interest in the former than the latter. Consider, given the enormous economic disruptions, it would be easy to see that number jump substantially, which would just be another signal for the Fed to act as aggressively as possible.

At this point, as the equity meltdown continues, the dollar should remain well supported vs. everything except the yen.

Good luck
Adf

Set For Stagnation

When thinking of every great nation
Regarding its growth expectation
The US alone
Is like to have grown
While others seem set for stagnation

The upshot of these circumstances
Is regular dollar advances
Within the G10
It’s euros and yen
That suffer on policy stances

Another day, another dollar rally. This simple sentiment pretty well sums up what we have been seeing for the past several weeks. And while there may be a multitude of catalysts driving individual currency movements, the reality is they all point in the same direction, a stronger dollar. Broadly speaking, data from around the world, excluding the US, has been consistently weaker than expected while the US continues to hum along nicely. Now, if China’s economy remains in its current catatonic state for another month, one has to believe that US numbers are going to suffer, if only for supply chain reasons. But right now, it is difficult for anyone to make the case that another currency is better placed than the dollar.

For example, last night we saw Australian Unemployment unexpectedly rise to 5.3% as the first measured impacts of Covid-19 make themselves felt Down Under. Traders wasted no time in selling Aussie and here we are this morning with the currency lower by 0.75%, trading to new lows for the move and touching its lowest level since March 2009. Perhaps the Lucky Country has run out of luck.

The yen keeps falling
Like ash from Fujiyama
Is an end in sight?

At this point in the session, the yen has seen its largest two-day decline since November 2016, in the immediate wake of President Trump’s election, and has now fallen more than 2.0% since Tuesday morning. It has broken through a key technical level at 111.02, which represented a very long-term downtrend line. This has encouraged short-term traders to add to what is believed to be significant outflows from Japanese investors, notably insurance companies. One of the other interesting things is that Japanese exporters, who are typically sellers of USDJPY, seem to be sitting this move out, having filled orders at the 110 level, and are now apparently waiting for 115. While it is unlikely that we will see the yen continue to decline 1% each day, I have to admit that 115 seems quite realistic by the end of the Japanese fiscal year next month.

And those are just two of the many stories that seem to be coming together simultaneously to encourage dollar buying. Other candidates are ongoing weak Eurozone economic data (Eurozone Construction output falling and reduced forecasts for tomorrow’s flash PMI data), rate cuts by EMG central banks (Indonesia cut by 25bps last night), and more confusion from China regarding Covid-19 and its spread. Last night, they changed the way they count infections for the second time in a week, and shockingly the result was a lower number indicating the spread of the disease is slowing. However, at this point, the virus count seems to be having less of a market impact than little things like the announcement that Hubei province is keeping all factories shuttered until at least March 10. Now I don’t know about you, but that hardly seems like the type of thing that indicates things are getting better there.

There is a new tacit contest in the market as well, trying to determine just how big a hit the Chinese economy is going to take in Q1. If you recall two weeks ago, the initial estimates were that GDP would grow at a 4%-5% rate in Q1. At this point 0.0% seems a given with a number of analysts penciling in negative growth for the quarter. And folks, I don’t know why anyone would think there is going to be a V-shaped recovery there. It is going to take a long time to get things anywhere near normal, and there has already been a lot of permanent demand destruction. On top of that, one of the things I had discussed last week, the idea that even if companies aren’t generating revenue, they still need to pay interest on their debt, is starting to be seen more publicly. The news overnight that HNA Group, a massively indebted conglomerate that had acquired trophy assets all around the world (stakes in Hilton Hotels and Deutsche Bank amongst others) is unable to pay interest on its debt and seems to be moving under state control. While the PBOC cut rates slightly overnight, the one-year loan prime rate is down to 4.05% from 4.15% previously, it appears that the Chinese government is going to be fighting the Covid-19 fight with more fiscal measures than monetary ones. That said, the renminbi has been falling along with all other currencies and has traded back through 7.00 to the dollar after a further 0.35% decline overnight.

The point is that you can essentially look at any currency right now and it is weaker vs. the dollar. Each may have its own story to tell, but they all point in the same direction.

I would be remiss to ignore other markets, which show that other than Chinese equity markets (Shanghai +1.85%), which rallied last night after news of further stimulus measures, risk is mostly on its back foot today. European equity markets are generally lower (DAX -0.1%, CAC -0.1%) although not by much. US futures are pointing lower by 0.2% across the board, again, not significant, but directionally the same message. Treasury yields continue to fall, down another 2bps this morning to 1.54%, and gold continues to rally, up another 0.3% this morning.

Yesterday’s FOMC Minutes explained that the Fed was pretty happy with current policy settings, something we already knew, and that they are still unsure how to change their ways to try to be more effective with respect to achieving their inflation target as well as insuring that there are no more funding crises. On the data front, yesterday’s PPI data was much firmer than expected, although most people pretty much ignore those numbers. Today we see Philly Fed (exp 11.0), Initial Claims (210K) and Leading Indicators (0.4%). Monday’s Empire Mfg data was stronger than expected and the forecasts for Philly Fed are for a solid increase. Yet again, the data picture points to a better outcome in the US than elsewhere, which in the current environment will only encourage further USD buying. For now, don’t get in front of this train, but if you need to hedge receivables, sooner is better than later as I think we could see this run for a while.

Good luck
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Fears Melt

As Covid fears melt
Like the snowpack during spring
The yen, too, recedes

Remember when there was a universal idea that if the world’s second largest economy, and its fastest growing one at that, essentially shut down due to complications from an exogenous force (Covid-19), it would force investors to show concern over their risk allocations and seek out haven assets? Me neither! Remarkably, equity investors have become so convinced that central banks collectively have their “backs” that there is virtually no interest in limiting positions. This is certainly true across all equity markets, where after a mere twenty-four hours of modest concern over the fact that Q1 iPhone sales would be negatively impacted by Covid-19, the all clear signal was given. This time that signal took the form of the Chinese government announcing that they would be supporting the domestic airline industry, either encouraging takeovers of smaller airlines in financial trouble by their larger brethren, or via direct capital injections into companies. My sense is we will see both of those actions in order to be certain that no airlines go under.

Headlines like the following: “Chinese Companies Say They Can’t Afford to Pay Workers Now” from a Bloomberg story are seen as irrelevant and have no impact on risk assessment. Apparently the idea that the Chinese private sector, which accounts for two-thirds of GDP growth and 90% of new jobs, has basically been shuttered is not relevant in the calculations made by equity investors. Let me just say that the idea of risk has certainly evolved lately.

But this is the story. Equity investors are convinced that central banks will never allow stock markets to decline again and will do everything in their power to prevent any such decline. And while that may be true with regard to central bank efforts, there is a potential flaw in the theory. Central bank power, just like virtually everything else, is subject to the law of diminishing returns, and we are already seeing that situation in Europe and Japan. So even though central bankers may try to stop all declines, do not be surprised when a situation arises where they cannot do so.

Interestingly, bond market investors have a somewhat different view of the landscape as we continue to see interest in Treasuries and bunds with yields in both instruments continuing to grind slowly lower. However, for now, the equity markets are in the spotlight and driving the narrative.

So, with this in mind, it is easier to understand that Asian markets mostly rallied last night (Nikkei +0.9%, Hang Seng +0.5) although Shanghai edged lower by -0.15%. European markets are rocking this morning with the DAX (+0.55%), CAC (+0.7%) and FTSE100 (+0.8%) leading the way higher despite news that Adidas and Puma have seen sales collapse to virtually zero in China. US futures are also pointing higher, on the order of 0.3% as we would not want to be left out of the action here.

Treasury yields continue to sink, however, with the 10-year down to 1.56% while German bunds have fallen to -0.42%. So there is clearly some demand for haven assets, perhaps just not as much as we would expect. And finally, in the FX market, havens have lost their appeal. Most notably, the yen has tumbled 0.5% this morning, trading well back through 110 and touching its weakest point since last May. Clearly, there is no fear in FX traders’ collective minds. Funnily enough, gold prices continue to rally, having closed above $1600/oz yesterday for the first time since March 2013, and are higher by a further 0.5% this morning.

With this as a backdrop, it is very difficult to paint a coherent picture of the markets today, at least the FX markets. In the G10 space, we have already discussed the yen’s decline, marking it as the worst performing major currency today. On the flip side, NOK is the big winner, +0.5% as oil prices rebound on the news that Chinese airlines are not all going to disappear. CAD is the second best performer, also on the back of the oil news, although it has only managed a 0.25% gain. And other than those three currencies, nothing else has moved more than 10 basis points from last night’s closing levels. On the data front overseas, UK CPI was released a tick higher than expected at 1.8%, although the pound has seen exactly zero movement on the back of the data. If nothing else, new BOE Governor Andrew Bailey must be happy that the road to 2% inflation is not quite as steep as previously expected.

In the EMG space, movement has been even more muted with the biggest gainers ZAR (+0.3%) and RUB (+0.25%) on the back stronger commodity and oil prices while the biggest decliners have been HUF (-0.3%) and TRY (-0.25%) with the former seeing profit taking after a nearly 2% rally in the wake of central bank discussions of tighter policy to fight inflation there, while the lira is responding to a rate cut of 50 bps as the central bank seeks to unwind the drastic tightening it implemented in mid-2018 amid major inflationary pressures. And while I wish there were some more interesting stories, the reality is the big narrative of central banks preventing risk sell-offs remains the only theme in the market.

Looking at this morning’s data we see Housing Starts (exp 1428K), Building Permits (1450K) and PPI (1.6%, 1.3% ex food & energy). Then at 2:00 we get a look at the FOMC Minutes from January’s meeting. Fed watchers are focusing on any discussion regarding the balance sheet and repo as it remains clear there is not going to be any interest rate change anytime soon.

So that’s what we have for today. Arguably, the dollar is ever so slightly on its back foot, but the movement has been infinitesimal. While I continue to believe that ultimately the Fed will ease policy further, for now, the dollar remains the brightest bulb in the box, and so should continue to attract buyers.

Good luck
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A Dangerous Game

In ‘Nineteen the story was trade
As Presidents Trump and Xi played
A dangerous game
While seeking to blame
The other for why growth decayed

But ‘Twenty has seen both adjust
Their attitudes and learn to trust
That working together,
Like birds of a feather,
Results in an outcome, robust

In a very quiet market, the bulk of the discussion overnight has been about the upcoming signing ceremony in the East Room of the White House tomorrow, where the US and China will agree the phase one piece of a trade deal. Despite the fact that this has been widely expected for a while, it seems to be having a further positive impact on risk assets. Today’s wrinkle in the saga has been the US’ removal of China from the Treasury list of currency manipulators. Back in August, in a bit of a surprise, the US added China to that list formally, rather than merely indicating the Chinese were on notice, as President Trump sought to apply maximum pressure during the trade negotiations. Now that the deal is set to be signed, apparently the Chinese have made “enforceable commitments” not to devalue the yuan going forward, which satisfied the President and led to the change in status. The upshot is that the ongoing positive risk framework remains in place thus supporting equity markets while undermining haven assets. In other words, just another day where the politicians seek to anesthetize market behavior, and have been successful doing so.

Chinese trade data released last night was quite interesting on two fronts; first that the Chinese trade surplus with the US shrank 11%, exactly what the President was seeking, and second, that the Chinese found many substitute markets in which to sell their wares as their overall trade surplus rose to $425 billion from 2018’s $351 billion. And another positive for the global growth watch was that both exports (+7.6%) and imports (+17.7%) grew nicely, implying that economic growth in the Middle Kingdom seems to be stabilizing. As to the yuan, it has been on a tear lately, rising 1.4% this year and nearly 4.5% since early September right after the US labeled China a currency manipulator. So, here too, President Trump seems to have gotten his way with the Chinese currency having regained almost all its losses since the November 2016 election. Quite frankly, it seems likely that the yuan has further to climb as prospects for Chinese growth brightened modestly and investors continue to hunt for yield and growth opportunities.

But away from the trade story there is precious little else to discuss. The pound remains under pressure (and under 1.30) as the idea of a BOE rate cut at the end of the month gains credence. Currently the market is pricing in a 47% probability of a rate cut, which is up from 23% on Friday. After yesterday’s weak GDP data, all eyes are focused on tomorrow’s UK CPI data as well as Friday’s Retail Sales where any weakness in either one is likely to see the market push those probabilities up even further.

As haven assets are shed, the Japanese yen has finally breached the 110 level for the first time since May and quite frankly there doesn’t appear to be any reason for the yen to stop declining, albeit slowly. Barring some type of major risk-off event, which is always possible, the near term portents are for further weakness. However, as the year progresses, ongoing Fed QE should serve to reverse this movement.

Even the Emerging markets have been dull overnight, with no currency moving more than 0.3%, which in some cases is nearly the bid-ask spread. For now, most market participants have become quite comfortable that no disasters are looming and that, with the US-China trade deal about to be completed, there is less likelihood of any near-term angst on that front. While a phase two deal has been mooted, given the issues that the US has indicated are important (forced technology transfer, state subsidies), and the fact that they are essentially non-starters in China, it seems highly improbable that there will be any progress on that issue this year.

On the data front, this morning brings the first US data of the week, where NFIB Small Business Optimism actually disappointed at 102.7 and the market is now awaiting December CPI data (exp 2.4%, 2.3% ex food & energy) at 8:30. The headline forecast represents a pretty big uptick from November, but that is directly related to oil’s price rally last month. The core, however, remains unchanged and well above the 2.0% Fed target. Of course that target is based on PCE, something that is designed to print lower, and there has been abundant evidence that the Fed’s idea of the target is to miss it convincingly on the high side. In other words, don’t look for the Fed to even consider a tighter policy stance unless CPI has a 3 handle.

And that’s really it for the session. Equity futures are pointing slightly higher as European equity indices are edging in that direction as well. Treasury yields are hovering just above 1.80%, little changed on the day and showing no directional bias for the past several weeks. If anything, the dollar is slightly higher this morning, but I would be surprised if this move extends much further at all.

Good luck
Adf

Growth Can Be Spurred

In England this morning we heard
From Vlieghe, the BOE’s third
Incumbent to say
That given his way
He’d cut rates so growth can be spurred

The pound is under pressure this morning after Gertjan Vlieghe became the third MPC member in the past week, after Carney and Tenreyo, to explain that a rate cut may be just the ticket at this point in time. Adding these three to the two members who had previously voted to cut rates, Haskel and Saunders, brings the number of doves to five, a majority on the committee. It can be no surprise that the pound has suffered, nor that interest rate markets have increased the probability of a 25bp rate cut at the January 30 meeting from below 25% last week to 50% now. Adding to the story was the release of worse than expected November IP (-1.2%) and GDP (-0.3%) data, essentially emphasizing the concerns that the UK economy has a long way to go to recover from the Brexit uncertainty.

However, before you turn too negative on the UK economy, remember that this is backward-looking data, as November was more than 6 weeks ago, and in the interim we have had the benefit of the resounding electoral victory by Boris Johnson. This is not to say that the UK economy cannot deteriorate further, just that there has been a palpable change in the tone of commentary in the UK as Brexit uncertainty has receded. Granted, the question of the trade deal with the EU, which is allegedly supposed to be signed by the end of 2020, remains open. But it is very difficult for market participants to look that far ahead and try to anticipate the outcome. And if anything, Boris has the fact that he was able to renegotiate the original Brexit deal in just six weeks’ time working in his favor. While previous assumptions had been that trade deals take years and years to negotiate, it is clear that Boris doesn’t subscribe to that theory. Personally, I wouldn’t bet against him getting it done.

But for now, the pound is the worst performer of the session, and given today’s news, that should be no surprise. However, I maintain my view that current levels represent an excellent opportunity for payables hedgers to add to hedges.

The other mover of note in the G10 space is the yen, which has fallen 0.4% after traders were able to take advantage of a Japanese holiday last night (Coming-of-age Day) and the associated reduced liquidity to push the dollar above a key technical resistance point at 109.72. Stop-loss orders at that level led to a quick jump at 4:00 this morning, and given the broad risk-on attitude in markets (equity markets worldwide continue to rebound from concerns over further Middle East flare ups), it certainly feels like traders are going to push the dollar up to 110, a level not seen since May. However, the other eight currencies in the G10 have been unable to generate any excitement whatsoever and are very close to unchanged this morning.

In the EMG space, Indonesia’s rupiah is once again the leader in the clubhouse, rising a further 0.7% after the central bank reiterated it would allow the currency to appreciate and following an announcement by the UAE that it would make a large investment in the nation’s (Indonesia’s) sovereign wealth fund. The resultant rally, to the rupiah’s strongest level in almost a year, has been impressive, but there is no reason to believe that it cannot continue for another 5% before finding a new home. This is especially true if we continue to hear good things regarding the US-China trade situation. Trade has also underpinned the second-best performer of the day in this space, KRW, which has rallied 0.5%, on the trade story.

While those are the key stories thus far this session, we do have a full week’s worth of data to anticipate, led by CPI, Retail Sales and Housing data.

Tuesday NFIB Small Biz Optimism 104.9
  CPI 0.3% (2.4% Y/Y)
  -ex food & energy 0.2% (2.3% Y/Y)
Wednesday PPI 0.2% (1.3% Y/Y)
  -ex food & energy 0.2% (1.3% Y/Y)
  Empire Manufacturing 3.5
  Fed’s Beige Book  
Thursday Initial Claims 218K
  Philly Fed 3.0
  Retail Sales 0.3%
  -ex autos 0.5%
  Business Inventories -0.1%
Friday Housing Starts 1380K
  Building Permits 1460K
  IP -0.1%
  Capacity Utilization 77.0%
  Michigan Sentiment 99.3
  JOLTS Job Openings 7.264M

Source: Bloomberg

So clearly there is plenty on the docket with an opportunity to move markets, and we also hear from another six Fed speakers. While you and I may be concerned about rising prices, it has become abundantly clear that the Fed is desperate to see them rise further, so the only possible reaction to a CPI miss would be on the weak side, which would likely see an equity rally on the assumption that even more stimulus is coming. Otherwise, I think Retail Sales will be the data point of choice for the market, with weakness here also leading to further equity strength on the assumption that the Fed will add to their current policy.

And it is hard to come up with a good reason for any Fed speaker to waver from the current mantra of no rate cuts, but ongoing support for the repo market and a growing balance sheet. And of course, that underlies my thesis that the dollar will eventually fall. Just not today it seems!

Good luck
Adf

More Doubt He Is Sowing

In Beijing, the Chinese yuan
Fell sharply as it’s now been drawn
Into the trade fight
Much to the delight
Of bears, who had shorts layered on

For President Xi, though, the risk
Is money there exits the fisc
With growth there still slowing
More doubt he is sowing
So capital flight could be brisk

Things changed overnight as the PBOC fixed the renminbi below 6.90, much weaker than expected and then the currency fell sharply in subsequent trading in both the on-shore and offshore markets. As you will have no doubt seen, USDCNY is trading somewhere in the vicinity of 7.08 this morning, although the price has been quite volatile. While that represents a decline of more than 1.5% compared to Friday’s closing levels, the more important questions revolve around the PBOC’s new strategy going forward.

Recall, one of the reasons that there was a strong market belief in the sanctity of the 7.00 level was that four years ago, when the PBOC surprised markets with a mini-devaluation, locals took their cash and ran for the hills. Capital outflows were so great, in excess of $1 trillion, that the PBOC needed to institute strict new rules preventing further flight. That was a distinct loss of face for an institution that was trying to modernize and prove that it could manage things like G10 countries where capital flows more freely. Ever since, the assumption was that the Chinese population would get nervous if the renminbi weakened beyond that level and correspondingly, the PBOC would not allow that outcome to occur.

But that was then, in the days when trade was simply a talking point rather than the focus of policy. As the trade war intensifies, the Chinese have fewer tools with which to fight given the massive imbalance that exists. The result of this is that increases in US tariffs cannot be matched and so other weapons must be used, with changes in the exchange rate the most obvious. While the PBOC claims they can continue to manage the currency and maintain its stability, the one thing I have learned throughout my career is that markets have a way of abusing claims of that nature, at least for a while. Back in January I forecast USDCNY to reach 7.40 by the end of this year and, as of this morning, that seems quite realistic.

But the impact on markets is far greater than simply the USDCNY exchange rate. This has been the catalyst for a significant amount of risk-off behavior with equity markets throughout Asia (Nikkei -1.75%, Shanghai -1.6%, Hang Seng -2.85%) and Europe (DAX -1.85%, CAC -2.25%, FTSE -2.25%) sharply lower; Treasury (1.76%) and Bund (-0.51%) yields sharply lower, the Japanese yen (+0.6%) and Swiss franc (+0.75%) both sharply higher and most emerging market currencies (e.g. MXN -1.5%, INR -1.4%, ZAR -1.2%, KRW -0.9%) falling alongside the renminbi. It should be no surprise that gold is higher by 1.0%, to a 6-year high, as well this morning and oil prices (-1.1%) are falling amid concerns of waning demand from the slowing global growth story.

So, what’s a hedger to do? The first thing to consider is whether these moves are temporary fluctuations that will quickly be reversed, or the start of longer-term trends. Given the imbalances that have been building within markets for the past decade and given that central banks have a greatly reduced set of monetary tools with which to manage things, despite their comments otherwise, this could well be the tipping point where markets start to unwind significant positions. After all, the one thing that truly underpinned gains in both equity and bond markets, especially corporate and high-yield bond markets, was confidence that regardless of fiscal policy failures, the central banks would be able to maintain a level of stability.

However, this morning that belief seems a little less secure. It will not take much for investors to decide that, ‘it’s been a good run and now might be a good time to take some money off the table’, at least figuratively. Last week saw equity markets suffer their worst week of the year and this week is not starting any better. Yes, the Fed has room to cut rates further, but will 200bps be enough to stop a global recession? Arguably, that’s the question that needs to be answered. From where I sit, that answer is no, but then I am a cynic. Of course, that cynicism is born of a long career in financial markets.

Thus, my take is that there is further to run in most of these currencies, and that assuming a quick reversion would be a mistake. While option prices are clearly higher this morning than last week, they remain low by historic standards and should be considered for their value in uncertain times. Just sayin’.

What else does this week have to offer? Well, the US data set is not that substantial, but we do hear from a number of Fed speakers, which given last week’s confusion will be extremely important and closely watched. There are also a number of foreign central bank meetings that will be interesting regarding their rate maneuvers.

Today ISM Non-Manufacturing 55.5
Tuesday JOLT’s Job Openings 7.317M
Wednesday RBNZ Rate Decision 1.25% (25bp cut)
  RBI Rate Decision 5.50% (25bpcut)
  Consumer Credit $16.0B
Thursday Philippine Rate Decision 4.25% (25bp cut)
  Initial Claims 215K
Friday PPI 0.2% (1.7% Y/Y)
  -ex food & energy 0.2% (2.4% Y/Y)

We also hear from three dovish Fed speakers; Brainerd, Bullard and Evans, who are likely to give more reasons for further rate cuts, especially if markets continue to fall. As to the three central banks with decisions to make, they find themselves in a difficult place. All three are extremely concerned about their currencies’ value and don’t want to exert further downward pressure on them, yet all three are facing slowing economies and need to do something to boost demand. In fact, this is going to be the central bank conundrum for some time to come across both developing and G10 countries as they try to continually manage the impossible trilateral of exchange rates, interest rates and growth.

All of this adds up to yet more reasons for higher volatility across all asset classes in the near future. It appears that these are the first cracks in the old economic order, and there is no way to know how everything will play out going forward. As long as risk is being jettisoned though, Treasuries, the yen, the Swiss franc and the dollar will see demand. Keep that in mind as you manage your risks.

Good luck
Adf

Shocked and Surprised

Delivering just twenty-five
Did not satisfy Donald’s drive
To boost US growth
So he made an oath
That tariffs he’d quickly revive

Investors were shocked and surprised
As trade talks had seemed civilized
Thus stocks quickly fell
And yields did as well
Seems risk assets are now despised

Just when you thought it was safe to go back in the water…

Obviously, the big news yesterday was President Trump’s decision to impose a 10% tariff on the remaining $300 billion of Chinese imports starting September 1st. Arguably, this was driven by two things; first was the fact that he has been increasingly frustrated with the Chinese slow-walking the trade discussions and wants to push that along faster. Second is he realizes that if he escalates the trade threats, the Fed may be forced to cut rates further and more quickly. After all, one of their stated reasons for cutting rates Wednesday was the uncertainty over global growth and trade. That situation just got more uncertain. So in President Trump’s calculation, he addresses two key issues with one action.

Not surprisingly, given the shocking nature of the move, something that not a single analyst had been forecasting, there was a significant market reaction. Risk was quickly jettisoned as US equity markets turned around and fell 1% on the day after having been higher by a similar amount in the morning. Asian equity markets saw falls of between 1.5% and 2.0% and Europe is being hit even harder, with a number of markets (DAX, CAC) down more than 2.5%. But even more impressive was the decline in Treasury yields, which saw a 12bp fall in the 10-year and a 14bp fall in the 2-year. Those are the largest single day declines since May 2018, and the 10-year is now at its lowest level since October 2016. Of course, it wasn’t just Treasuries that rallied. Bund yields fell to a new record low of -0.498%, and we have seen similar declines throughout the developed markets. For example, Swiss 10-year yields are now -0.90%, having fallen 9bps and are the lowest in the world by far! In fact, the entire Swiss government yield curve is negative!

And in the FX market, haven number one, JPY rallied sharply. After weakening early in the session, it rebounded 1.7% yesterday and is stronger by a further 0.5% this morning. This has taken the yen back to its strongest level since April last year. Not surprisingly the Swiss franc saw similar price action and is now more than 1.0% stronger than yesterday. However, those are not the only currencies that saw movement, not by a long shot. For example, CNY has fallen 0.9% since the announcement and is now within spitting distance of the key 7.00 level. Significant concern remains in the market about that level as the last time the renminbi was that weak, it led to significant capital outflows and forced the PBOC to adjust policy and impose restrictions. However, there are many analysts who believe it is seen as less of a concern right now, and of course, a weaker renminbi will help offset the impact of US tariffs.

Commodity prices were also jolted, with oil tumbling 7% and oil related currencies feeling the brunt of that move. For example, RUB is lower by 1.2% this morning after a 0.5% fall yesterday. MXN is lower by a further 0.3% this morning after a 0.6% decline yesterday and even NOK, despite its G10 status, is lower by 1.0% since the tariff story hit the tape. In fact, looking at the broad dollar, it is actually little changed as there has been significant movement in both directions as traders and investors adjust their risk profiles.

With that as a prelude, we get one more key piece of data this morning, the payroll report. Current expectations are as follows:

Nonfarm Payrolls 164K
Private Payrolls 160K
Manufacturing Payrolls 5K
Unemployment Rate 3.6%
Average Hourly Earnings 0.2% (3.1% Y/Y)
Average Weekly Hours 34.4
Trade Balance -$54.6B
Michigan Sentiment 90.3

You can see the bind in which the Fed finds itself. The employment situation remains quite robust, with the Unemployment Rate expected to tick back to 50-year lows and steady growth in employment. This is hardly a classic set of statistics to drive a rate cut. But with the escalation of the trade situation, something they specifically highlighted on Wednesday, they are going to need to address that or lose even more credibility (although it’s not clear how much they have left to lose!) In a funny way, I would wager that Chairman Powell is secretly rooting for a weak number this morning which would allow further justification for rate cuts and correspondingly allow him to save some face.

In the end, the key to remember is that markets are beholden to many different forces with the data merely one of those, and increasingly a less and less important one. While historically, the US has generally allowed most market activity without interference, there has clearly been a change of heart since President Trump’s election. His increased focus on both the stock market and the dollar are something new, and we still don’t know the extent of the impact this will have over time. While volatility overall has been relatively low, it appears that is set to change with this increased focus. Hedgers keep that in mind as programs are implemented. All of this untested monetary policy is almost certainly building up problems for the future, and those problems will not be easily addressed by the central banks. So, my sense is that we could see a lot more volatility ahead.

In the meantime, today has the sense of a ‘bad news is good’ for stocks and vice versa as equity investors will be looking for confirmation that more rate cuts are on the way. As to the dollar, bad news will be bad!

Good luck and good weekend
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