Growth Can Be Spurred

In England this morning we heard
From Vlieghe, the BOE’s third
Incumbent to say
That given his way
He’d cut rates so growth can be spurred

The pound is under pressure this morning after Gertjan Vlieghe became the third MPC member in the past week, after Carney and Tenreyo, to explain that a rate cut may be just the ticket at this point in time. Adding these three to the two members who had previously voted to cut rates, Haskel and Saunders, brings the number of doves to five, a majority on the committee. It can be no surprise that the pound has suffered, nor that interest rate markets have increased the probability of a 25bp rate cut at the January 30 meeting from below 25% last week to 50% now. Adding to the story was the release of worse than expected November IP (-1.2%) and GDP (-0.3%) data, essentially emphasizing the concerns that the UK economy has a long way to go to recover from the Brexit uncertainty.

However, before you turn too negative on the UK economy, remember that this is backward-looking data, as November was more than 6 weeks ago, and in the interim we have had the benefit of the resounding electoral victory by Boris Johnson. This is not to say that the UK economy cannot deteriorate further, just that there has been a palpable change in the tone of commentary in the UK as Brexit uncertainty has receded. Granted, the question of the trade deal with the EU, which is allegedly supposed to be signed by the end of 2020, remains open. But it is very difficult for market participants to look that far ahead and try to anticipate the outcome. And if anything, Boris has the fact that he was able to renegotiate the original Brexit deal in just six weeks’ time working in his favor. While previous assumptions had been that trade deals take years and years to negotiate, it is clear that Boris doesn’t subscribe to that theory. Personally, I wouldn’t bet against him getting it done.

But for now, the pound is the worst performer of the session, and given today’s news, that should be no surprise. However, I maintain my view that current levels represent an excellent opportunity for payables hedgers to add to hedges.

The other mover of note in the G10 space is the yen, which has fallen 0.4% after traders were able to take advantage of a Japanese holiday last night (Coming-of-age Day) and the associated reduced liquidity to push the dollar above a key technical resistance point at 109.72. Stop-loss orders at that level led to a quick jump at 4:00 this morning, and given the broad risk-on attitude in markets (equity markets worldwide continue to rebound from concerns over further Middle East flare ups), it certainly feels like traders are going to push the dollar up to 110, a level not seen since May. However, the other eight currencies in the G10 have been unable to generate any excitement whatsoever and are very close to unchanged this morning.

In the EMG space, Indonesia’s rupiah is once again the leader in the clubhouse, rising a further 0.7% after the central bank reiterated it would allow the currency to appreciate and following an announcement by the UAE that it would make a large investment in the nation’s (Indonesia’s) sovereign wealth fund. The resultant rally, to the rupiah’s strongest level in almost a year, has been impressive, but there is no reason to believe that it cannot continue for another 5% before finding a new home. This is especially true if we continue to hear good things regarding the US-China trade situation. Trade has also underpinned the second-best performer of the day in this space, KRW, which has rallied 0.5%, on the trade story.

While those are the key stories thus far this session, we do have a full week’s worth of data to anticipate, led by CPI, Retail Sales and Housing data.

Tuesday NFIB Small Biz Optimism 104.9
  CPI 0.3% (2.4% Y/Y)
  -ex food & energy 0.2% (2.3% Y/Y)
Wednesday PPI 0.2% (1.3% Y/Y)
  -ex food & energy 0.2% (1.3% Y/Y)
  Empire Manufacturing 3.5
  Fed’s Beige Book  
Thursday Initial Claims 218K
  Philly Fed 3.0
  Retail Sales 0.3%
  -ex autos 0.5%
  Business Inventories -0.1%
Friday Housing Starts 1380K
  Building Permits 1460K
  IP -0.1%
  Capacity Utilization 77.0%
  Michigan Sentiment 99.3
  JOLTS Job Openings 7.264M

Source: Bloomberg

So clearly there is plenty on the docket with an opportunity to move markets, and we also hear from another six Fed speakers. While you and I may be concerned about rising prices, it has become abundantly clear that the Fed is desperate to see them rise further, so the only possible reaction to a CPI miss would be on the weak side, which would likely see an equity rally on the assumption that even more stimulus is coming. Otherwise, I think Retail Sales will be the data point of choice for the market, with weakness here also leading to further equity strength on the assumption that the Fed will add to their current policy.

And it is hard to come up with a good reason for any Fed speaker to waver from the current mantra of no rate cuts, but ongoing support for the repo market and a growing balance sheet. And of course, that underlies my thesis that the dollar will eventually fall. Just not today it seems!

Good luck
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A Good Place

Said Clarida, “We’re in a good place”
With regard to the policy space
Later Bullard explained
That inflation’s restrained
And a rise above two he’d embrace

“At this point I think it would be a welcome development, even if it pushed inflation above target for a time. I think that would be welcome, so bring it on.” So said St Louis Fed President James Bullard, the uber-dove on the FOMC, yesterday when discussing the current policy mix and how it might impact their inflation goals. Earlier, Vice-chairman Richard Clarida explained that while things currently seem pretty good, the risks remain to the downside and that the Fed would respond appropriately to any unexpected weakness in economic data. Not wanting to be left out, BOE member Silvana Tenreyo, also explained that she could easily be persuaded to vote to cut rates in the UK in the event that the economic data started to slow at all.

My point is that even though the central banking community has not seemed to be quite as aggressive with regard to policy ease lately, the reality is that they are collectively ready to respond instantly to any sign that the current global economic malaise could worsen. And of course, the ECB is still expanding its balance sheet by €20 billion per month while the Fed is growing its own by more than $60 billion per month. Any thought that the central bank community was backing away from interventionist policy needs to be discarded. While they continue to call, en masse, for fiscal stimulus, they are not about to step back and reduce their influence on markets and the economy. You can bet that the next set of rate moves will be lower, pretty much everywhere around the world. The only question is which bank will move first.

This matters because FX is a relative game, where currency movement is often based on the comparison between two nations’ monetary regimes and outlooks, with everyone looking at the same data, and central bank groupthink widespread, every response to a change in the economic outlook will be the same; first cut rates, then buy bonds, and finally promise to never raise rates again! And this is why I continue to forecast the dollar to decline as 2020 progresses, despite its robust early performance, the Fed has more room to cut rates than any other central bank, and that will ultimately undermine the dollar’s relative value.

But that is not the case today, or this week really, where the dollar has been extremely robust even with the tensions in Iran quickly dissipating. I think one of the reasons this has been the case is that the US data keeps beating expectations. As we head into the payroll report later this morning, recall that; the Trade Deficit shrunk, ISM Non-Manufacturing beat expectations, Factory Orders beat expectations, ADP Employment beat expectations and Initial Claims fell more than expected. The point is that no other nation has seen a run of data that has been so positive recently, and there has been an uptick in investment inflows to the US, notably in the stock market, which once again traded to record highs yesterday. While this continues to be the case, the dollar will likely remain well bid. However, ultimately, I expect the ongoing QE process to undermine the greenback.

Speaking of the payroll report, here are the latest median expectations according to Bloomberg:

Nonfarm Payrolls 160K
Private Payrolls 153K
Manufacturing Payrolls 5K
Unemployment Rate 3.5%
Average Hourly Earnings 0.3% (3.1% Y/Y)
Average Weekly Hours 34.4
Canadian Change in Employment 25.0K
Canadian Hourly Wage Rate 4.2%
Canadian Unemployment Rate 5.8%
Canadian Participation Rate 65.6%

With the better than expected ADP report, market participants are leaning toward a higher number than the economists, especially given the overall robustness of the recent data releases. At this point, I would estimate that any number above 180K is likely to see some immediate USD strength, although I would not be surprised to see that ebb as the session progresses amid profit-taking by traders who have been long all week. Ironically, I think that a weak number (<130K) is likely to be a big boost for stocks as expectations of Fed ease rise, although the dollar is unlikely to move much on the outcome.

On the Canadian front, they have been in the midst of a terrible run regarding employment, with last month’s decline of 71.2K the largest in more than a decade. While inflation up north has been slightly above target, if we continue to see weaker economic data there, the BOC is going to be forced to cut rates sooner than currently priced (one cut by end of the year) as there is no way they will be able to resist the pressure to address slowing growth, especially given the global insouciance regarding inflation. While that could see the Loonie suffer initially, I still think the long term trend is for the USD to soften.

As to the rest of the world, the overnight session was not very scintillating. The dollar had a mixed performance overall, rising slightly against most of its G10 brethren, but faring less well against a number of EMG currencies, notably the higher yielders. For example, IDR was the big winner overnight, rising 0.6% to its strongest point since April 2018, after the central bank explained that it would not be intervening to prevent further strength and investors flocked to the Indonesian bond market with its juicy 5+% yield. Similarly, INR was also a winner, rising 0.4% as investors chased yield there as well. You can tell that fears over an escalation of the US-Iran conflict have virtually disappeared as these are two currencies that are likely to significantly underperform in the event things got hot there.

On the downside, Hungary’s forint was today’s weakest performer, falling 0.5% after PM Victor Orban explained that Hungary joining the euro would be “catastrophic”. While I agree with the PM, I think the market response is based on the idea that if the Hungarians were leaning in that direction, the currency would likely rally before joining.

On the G10 front, both French and Italian IP were released within spitting distance of their expectations and once again, the contrast between consistently strong US data and lackluster data elsewhere has weighed on the single currency, albeit not much as it has only declined 0.1%. And overall, the reality is that the G10 space has seen very little movement, with the entire block within 0.3% of yesterday’s closes. At this point, the payroll data will determine the next move, but barring a huge surprise in either direction, it doesn’t feel like much is in store.

Payables hedgers, I continue to believe this is a great opportunity as the dollar’s strength is unlikely to last.

Good luck and good weekend
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What’s Most Feared

For almost two days it appeared
That havens were to be revered
But with rates so low
Investors still know
That selling risk is what’s most feared

By yesterday afternoon it had become clear that market participants were no longer concerned over any immediate retaliation by Iran. While there have been a number of comments and threats, the current belief set is that anything that occurs is far more likely to be executed via Iranian proxies, like Hezbollah, rather than any direct attack on the US. And so as the probability of a hot war quickly receded in the minds of the global investment community, all eyes turned back toward what is truly important…central bank largesse!

As I briefly mentioned yesterday, there was a large gathering of economists, including many central bankers past and present, this past weekend in San Diego. The issue that seemed to generate the most interest was the idea of negative interest rates and whether their implementation had been successful, and more importantly, whether they ever might appear as part of the Fed’s policy toolkit.

Chairman Powell has made clear a number of times that there is no place for negative rates in the US. This sentiment has been echoed by most of the current FOMC membership, even the most dovish members like Kashkari and Bullard. And since the US economy is continuing to grow, albeit pretty slowly, it seems unlikely that this will be more than an academic exercise anytime soon. However, a paper presented by some San Francisco Fed economists described how negative rates would have been quite effective during the throes of the financial crisis in 2008-2009, and that stopping at zero likely elongated the pain. Ironically, former Fed chair Bernanke also presented a paper saying negative rates should definitely be part of the toolkit going forward. This is ironic given he was the one in charge when the Fed went to zero and had the opportunity to go negative at what has now been deemed the appropriate time. (Something I have observed of late is that former Fed chairs are quite adept at describing things that should be done by the Fed, but were not enacted when they were in the chair. It seems that the actuality of making decisions, rather than sniping from the peanut gallery, is a lot harder than they make out.)

At any rate, as investors and analysts turn their focus away from a potential war to more mundane issues like growth and earnings, the current situation remains one of positive momentum. The one thing that is abundantly clear is that the central bank community is not about to start tightening policy anytime soon. In fact, arguably the question is when the next bout of policy ease is implemented. The PBOC has already cut the RRR, effective yesterday, and analysts everywhere anticipate further policy ease from China going forward as the government tries to reignite higher growth. While Chairman Powell has indicated the Fed is on hold all year, the reality is that they are continuing to regrow the balance sheet to the tune of $60 billion / month of outright purchases as well as the ongoing repo extravaganza, where yesterday more than $76 billion was taken up. And although this is more of a stealth easing than a process of cutting interest rates, it is liquidity addition nonetheless. Once again, it is this process, which shows no signs of abating, which leads me to believe that the dollar will underperform all year.

Turning to today’s session we have seen equity markets climb around the world following the US markets’ turn higher yesterday afternoon. Bond prices are little changed overall, with 10-year Treasury yields right at 1.80%, and both oil and gold have edged a bit lower on the day. Certainly, to the extent that there was fear of a quick reprisal from Iran, the oil market has discounted that activity dramatically.

Meanwhile, the dollar is actually having a pretty good session today, rallying against the entire G10 space despite some solid data from the Eurozone, and performing well against the bulk of the EMG bloc. The dollar’s largest gains overnight have come vs. the Australian dollar, which is down nearly 1.0% this morning after weak employment data (ANZ Job Adverts -6.7%) reignited fears that the RBA was going to be forced to cut rates further in Q1. But the greenback has outperformed the entire G10 space. The other noteworthy data were Eurozone Retail Sales (+1.0%) and CPI (+1.3% headline and core) with the former beating expectations but the latter merely meeting expectations and the core data showing no impetus toward the ECB’s ‘just below 2.0%’ target. Alas, the euro is lower by 0.15% this morning, dragging its tightly linked EEMEA buddies down by at least that much, and in some cases more. Finally, the pound has dipped 0.3%, but given the dearth of data, that seems more like a simple reaction to its inexplicable two-day rally.

In the EMG space, APAC currencies were the clear winners, with CNY rallying 0.5% as investment flows picked up with one of this year’s growing themes being that China is going to rebound sharply, especially with the trade situation seeming to settle down. It can be no surprise that both KRW and IDR, both countries that rely on stronger Chinese growth for their own growth, have rallied by similar amounts this morning. Meanwhile, EEMEA currencies have been under pressure, as mentioned above, despite the little data released (Hungarian and Romanian Retail Sales) being quite robust.

As to this morning’s session we get our first data of the week with the Trade Balance (exp -$43.6B), ISM Non-Manufacturing (54.5) and Factory Orders (-0.8%). Mercifully, there are no Fed speakers scheduled, so my sense is the market will be focused on the ISM data as well as the equity market. As things currently stand, it is all systems go for a stock market rally and assuming the ISM data simply meets expectations, the narrative is likely to shift toward stabilizing US growth. Of course, with the Fed pumping money into the economy in the background, that should be the worst case no matter what. FWIW it seems the dollar’s rally is a touch overdone here. My sense is that we are going to see it give back some of this morning’s gains as the session progresses.

Good luck
Adf

 

Open and Shut

Kashakari, on Friday, explained
For US growth to be sustained
The case for a cut
Was open and shut
Since then, talk of fifty has gained

As the new week begins, last week’s late trends remain in place, i.e. limited equity market movement as uncertainty over the outcome of the Trump-Xi meeting continues, continued demand for yield as investors’ collective belief grows that more monetary ease is on the way around the world, and a softening dollar vs. other currencies and commodities, as the prevailing assumption is that the US has far more room to ease policy than any other central bank. Certainly, the last statement is true as US rates remain the highest in the developed world, so simply cutting them back to the zero bound will add much more than the stray 20bps that the ECB, which is already mired in negative territory, can possibly add.

It is this concept which has adjusted my shorter-term view on the dollar, along with the view of most dollar bulls. However, as I have discussed repeatedly, at some point, the dollar will have adjusted, especially since the rest of the world will need to get increasingly aggressive if the dollar starts to really decline. As RBA Governor Lowe mentioned in a speech, one of the key methods of policy ease transmission by any country is by having the local currency decline relative to its peers, but if everyone is easing simultaneously, then that transmission channel is not likely to be as effective. In other words, this is yet another central bank head calling for fiscal policy stimulus as he admits the limits that exist in monetary policy at this time. Alas, the herd mentality is strong in the central bank community, and so I anticipate that all of them will continue down the same path with a minimal ultimate impact.

What we do know as of last week is there are at least two FOMC members who believe rates should be lower now, Bullard and Kashkari, and I suspect that there are a number more who don’t have to be pushed that hard to go along, notably Chairman Powell himself. Remember, if markets start to decline sharply, he will want to avoid as much of the blame as possible, so if the Fed is cutting rates, he covers himself. And quite frankly, I expect that almost regardless of how the data prints in the near-term, we are going to see policy ease across the board. Every central bank is too committed at this point to stop.

The upshot of all this is that this week is likely to play out almost exactly like Friday. This means a choppy equity market with no trend, a slowly softening dollar and rising bond markets, as all eyes turn toward Osaka, Japan, where the G20 is to meet on Friday and Saturday. Much to their chagrin, it is not the G20 statement of leaders that is of concern, rather it is the outcome of the Trump-Xi meeting that matters. In fact, that is pretty much the only thing that investors are watching this week, especially since the data releases are so uninteresting.

At this point, we can only speculate on how things will play out, but what is interesting is that we have continued to hear a hard line from the Chinese press. Declaring that they will fight “to the end” regarding the trade situation, as well as warning the US on doing anything regarding the ongoing protests in Hong Kong. Look for more bombast before the two leaders meet, but I think the odds favor a more benign resolution, at least at this point.

Turning to the data situation, the only notable data overnight was German Ifo, which fell to 97.4, its lowest level since November 2014, and continuing the ongoing trend of weak Eurozone data. However, the euro continues to rally on the overwhelming belief that the US is set to ease policy further, and this morning is higher by 0.25%, and back to its highest point in 3 months. As to the rest of the week, here’s what to look forward to:

Tuesday Case-Hiller Home Prices 2.6%
  Consumer Confidence 131.2
  New Home Sales 680K
Wednesday Durable Goods -0.1%
  -ex transport 0.1%
Thursday Initial Claims 220K
  Q1GDP 3.2%
Friday Personal Income 0.3%
  Personal Spending 0.4%
  Core PCE 0.2% (1.6% Y/Y)
  Chicago PMI 53.1
  Michigan Sentiment 98.0

Arguably, the most important point is the PCE data on Friday, but of more importance is the fact that we are going to hear from four more Fed speakers early this week, notably Chairman Powell on Tuesday afternoon. And while the Fed sounded dovish last week, with the subsequent news that Kashkari was aggressively so, all eyes will be looking to see if he is persuading others. We will need to see remarkably strong data to change this narrative going forward. And that just seems so unlikely right now.

In the end, as I said at the beginning, this week is likely to shape up like Friday, with limited movement, and anxiety building as we all await the Trump-Xi meeting. And that means the dollar is likely to continue to slide all week.

Good luck
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The Doves Are Ascendant

A recap of central bank actions
Shows sameness across all the factions
The doves are ascendant
And markets dependent
On easing for all their transactions

Yesterday’s markets behaved as one would expect given the week’s central bank activities, where policy ease is the name of the game. Stock markets rose sharply around the world, bond yields fell with the dollar following yields lower. Commodity prices also had a good day, although gold’s rally, as a haven asset, is more disconcerting than copper’s rally on the idea that easier policy will help avert a recession. And while, yes, Norway did raise rates 25bps…to 1.25%, they are simply the exception that proves the rule. Elsewhere, to recap, the three major central banks all met, and each explained that further policy ease, despite current historically easy policy, is not merely possible but likely going forward.

If there were questions as to why this is the case, recent data releases serve as an excellent answer. Starting in the US yesterday, Philly Fed, the second big manufacturing survey, missed sharply on the downside, printing at 0.3, down from last month’s 16.6 reading and well below expectations of 11.0. Combined with Monday’s Empire Manufacturing index, this is certainly a negative harbinger of economic activity in the US.

Japan’s inflation
Continues to edge lower
Is that really bad?

Then, last night we saw Japanese CPI data print at 0.7%, falling 0.2% from the previous month and a strong indication that the BOJ remains far behind in their efforts to change the deflationary mindset in Japan. It is also a strong indication that the BOJ is going to add to its current aggressive policy ease, with talk of both a rate cut and an increase in QE. The one thing that is clear is that verbal guidance by Kuroda-san has had effectively zero impact on the nation’s views of inflation. While the yen has softened by 0.2% this morning compared to yesterday’s close, it remains in a clear uptrend which began in April, or if you step back, a longer-term uptrend which began four years ago. Despite the fact that markets are anticipating further policy ease from Tokyo, the yen’s strength is predicated on two factors; first the fact that the US has significantly more room to ease policy than Japan and so the dollar is likely to have a weak period; and second, the fact that overall evaluations of market risk (just not the equity markets) shows a great deal of concern amongst investors and the yen’s haven status remains attractive.

Closing out our analysis of economic malaise, this morning’s Flash PMI data from Europe showed that while things seem marginally better than last month, they are still rotten. Once again, Germany’s Manufacturing PMI printed well below 50 at 45.4 with the Eurozone version printing at 47.8. These are not data points that inspire confidence in central bankers and are amongst the key reasons that we continue to hear from virtually every ECB speaker that there is plenty of room for the ECB to ease policy further. And while that is a suspect sentiment, there is no doubt that they will try. But once again, the issue is that given the current status of policy, the Fed has the most room to ease policy and that relative position is what will maintain pressure on the buck.

Away from the central bank story, there is no doubt that market participants have ascribed a high degree of probability to the Trump-Xi meeting being a success at defusing the ongoing trade tensions. Certainly, it seems likely that it will help restart the talks, a very good thing, but that is not the same thing as making concessions or coming to agreement. It remains a telling factor that the Chinese are unwilling to codify the agreement in their legal system, but rather want to rely on administrative rules and guidance. That strikes as a very different expectation, compared to the rest of the developed world, regarding what international negotiations are designed to achieve. When combined with the fact that the Chinese claim there is no IP theft or forced technology transfer, which are two of the key issues on the table for the US, I still have a hard time seeing a successful outcome. But I am no trade expert, so my views are just my own.

And finally, Brexit has not really been in the news that much lately, at least not on this side of the pond, but the Tory leadership contest is down to the final two candidates, Boris Johnson and Jeremy Hunt, the Foreign Secretary. The process now heads to the roughly 160,000 active members of the Conservative Party, with Johnson favored to prevail. His stance on Brexit is he would prefer a deal, but he will not allow a delay past the current October 31, 2019 deadline, deal or no deal. It is this dynamic which has undermined the pound lately and driven its lagging performance for the past several months. However, this will take more time to play out and so I expect that the pound will remain in limbo for a while yet.

On the data front, we see only Existing Home Sales (exp 5.25M) this morning, but with the FOMC meeting now past and the quiet period over, we hear from two Fed speakers, Governor Brainerd (a dove) and Cleveland Fed President Mester (a hawk). At this point, all indications are that the Fed is leaning far more dovish than before, so it will be telling to hear Ms Mester. If she comes across as dovish, I would expect that we will see both stocks and bonds rally further with the dollar sinking again. Thus, a tumultuous week is ending with the opportunity for a bit more action. The dollar remains under pressure and I expect that to be the case for the foreseeable future.

Good luck
Adf

Loosen the Screws

Said President Trump, come next week
That he and Xi are set to speak
Meanwhile he complains
The euro remains
Too weak, and a boost there he’ll seek

But that was all yesterday’s news
Today Jay will offer his views
On whether the Fed
Is ready to shred
Its old plans and loosen the screws

ECB President Draghi once again proved his mettle yesterday by managing to surprise the market with an even more dovish set of comments when he spoke at the ECB gathering in Sintra, Portugal. Essentially, the market now believes he promised to cut interest rates further and restart QE soon, despite the fact that rates in the Eurozone remain negative and that the ECB has run up against their self-imposed limits regarding percentage of ownership of Eurozone government bonds. In other words, once again, Draghi will change the rules to allow him to go deeper down the rabbit hole otherwise, these days, known as monetary policy.

Markets were Europhoric, on the news, with equities on the Continent all rising 1.5% or so, while government bond yields fell to new lows. German Bund yields touched a new, all-time, low at -0.326%, but we also saw French OAT yields fall to a record low of 0.00% in the 10-year space. In fact, all Eurozone government bonds saw sharp declines in yields. For Draghi, I’m sure the most gratifying result was that the 5 year/5 year inflation swap contract rebounded from 1.18%, up to 1.23%, still massively below the target of “close to, but below, 2.0%”, but at least it stopped falling. In addition, the euro fell, closing the day lower by 0.2% and back below the 1.12 level, and we also saw gold add to its recent gains, as lower interest rates traditionally support precious metals prices.

US markets also had a big day yesterday with both equity and bond markets continuing the recent rally. Clearly, the idea that the ECB was ready to add further stimulus was a key driver of the move, but that news also whetted appetites for today’s FOMC meeting and what they will do and say. Adding fuel to the equity fire was President Trump’s announcement that he would be meeting with Chinese President Xi at the G20 next week, with plans for an “extended meeting” there. This has created the following idea for traders and investors; global monetary policy is set to get much easier while the trade war is soon coming to an end. The combination will remove both of the current drags on global economic growth, so buy risky assets. Of course, the flaw in this theory is that if Trump and Xi come to terms, then the trade war, which has universally been blamed for the world’s economic troubles, will no longer be weakening the economy and so easier monetary policy won’t be necessary. But those are just details relative to the main narrative. And the narrative is now, easy money is coming to a central bank near you, and that means stocks will rally!

Let’s analyze that narrative for a moment. There is a growing suspicion that this is a coordinated attempt by central bankers to rebuild confidence by all of them easing policy at the same time, thus allowing a broad-based economic benefit without specific currency impacts. After all, if the ECB eases, and so does the Fed, and the BOJ tonight, and even the BOE tomorrow, the relative benefits (read declines) to any major currency will be limited. The problem I have with the theory is that coordination is extremely difficult to achieve out in the open, let alone as a series of back room deals. However, it does seem pretty clear that the data set of late is looking much less robust than had been the case earlier this year, so central bank responses are not surprising.

And remember, too, that BOE Governor Carney keeps trying to insist that UK rates could rise in the event of a smooth Brexit, although this morning’s CPI data printed right on their target of 2.0%, with pipeline pressures looking quite subdued. This has resulted in futures markets pricing in rate cuts despite Carney’s threats. This has also helped undermine the pound’s performance, which continues to be a laggard, even with yesterday’s euro declines. The fact that markets are ignoring Carney sets a dangerous precedent for the central banking community as well, because if markets begin to ignore their words, they may soon find all their decisions marginalized.

So, all in all, the market is ready for a Fed easing party, although this morning’s price action has been very quiet ahead of the actual news at 2:00 this afternoon. Futures markets are currently pricing a 23% chance of a rate cut today and an 85% chance of one in July. One thing I don’t understand is why nobody is talking about ending QT this month, rather than waiting until September. After all, the balance sheet run-off has been blamed for undermining the economy just as much as the interest rate increases. An early stop there would be seen as quite dovish without needing to promise to change rates. Just a thought.

And really, these are the stories that matter today. If possible, this Fed meeting is even more important than usual, which means that the likelihood of large movement before the 2:00pm announcement is extremely small. There is no other data today, and overall, the dollar is ever so slightly softer going into the announcement. This is a reflection of the anticipated easing bias, but obviously, it all depends on what the Chairman says to anticipate the next move.

Good luck
Adf

More Not Less

As markets return from vacation
The central banks’ tales of inflation
Continue to stress
They want more, not less
Thus, policy ease is salvation

With the market back to full strength this morning, after a long holiday weekend throughout much of the world, it seems that every story is about the overall change in tone by most major central banks. That tone, of course, is now all about the end of the nascent tightening cycle. Whether considering the Swedish Riksbank, which saw disturbingly higher Unemployment data at the end of last week thus putting the kibosh on their efforts to continue policy normalization and raise rates back up to 0.0%, or the weekend WSJ story that hypothesized how the Fed was reconsidering their framework and trying to determine new lower thresholds for easing policy, all stories point to one thing, central banks have looked in the mirror and decided that they are not going to take the blame for the next recession.

This means that we need to be prepared to hear more about allowing the economy to run hot with higher inflation and lower unemployment than previously deemed prudent. We need to be prepared to hear more about macroprudential measures being used to prevent asset bubbles in the future. But most importantly, we need to be prepared for the fact that asset bubbles have already been inflated and the current monetary policy stance is simply going to help them expand further. (Of course, central banks have proven particularly inept at addressing market bubbles in the past, so the idea that they will suddenly be able to manage them going forward seems unlikely.)

Naturally, there are calls for a switch in the mix of policy initiatives around the G10 with demands for more fiscal stimulus offset by less monetary stimulus. That idea comes right from page one of the Keynesian handbook, but interestingly, when the US implemented that policy last year (tax cuts and four rate hikes) both sets of policymakers got lambasted by the press. Fiscal stimulus at the end of a long growth cycle was seen as crazy and unprecedented while Fed hawkishness was undermining the recovery. These were the themes portrayed throughout the press and the market. When considered in that context, it seems that pundits really don’t care what happens, they simply want to be able to complain about the current policy and seem smart! At any rate, it has become abundantly clear that neither fiscal nor monetary policy is going to tighten anytime soon.

So, what does this mean for markets?

For equity markets, the world is looking incredibly bright. Despite the fact that equity markets have rebounded sharply already this year, (S&P +16%, DAX +15%, Shanghai + 28%, Nikkei +13%), given the clear signals we are hearing from global policymakers, there is no reason to think this should end. One of Keynes’ most important lessons was that ‘markets can remain irrational longer than you can remain solvent’. The point being that even if there is concern that markets have rallied to significantly overvalued levels, there is nothing to stop them from going further in the short run. Another interesting weekend article, this by Kevin Muir, highlighted the dichotomy between current retail enthusiasm for equity markets being so different from professional skepticism in the current situation. His point was one side of the argument is going to be really wrong. My take is that it is more a question of timing with an easily envisioned scenario of a further short-term rally to even more absurd valuation levels before an eventual reversal on some heretofore unseen concern (hard Brexit? US-China trade talks break down? Hot war after Iran tries to shut down the Strait of Hormuz?) The point is, there are still plenty of potential concerns that can derail things, but for now, it is all about easy money!

For bond markets, things are also looking great. After all, if there is no further policy tightening on the horizon, and inflation remains quiescent, government bonds should continue to rally. This is especially so if we see Eurozone economic weakness start to spread more widely. As to corporate bonds, low policy rates and ongoing solid economic activity point to spreads maintaining their current extremely tight levels. The hunt for yield will continue to dominate fixed income investing and that means tighter spreads across all asset classes.

Finally, for the currency markets this is a much more nuanced picture. This is because currencies remain a relative game, not an absolute one like stocks and bonds. So who’s policy is the tightest? Arguably, right now the US. Is that going to change in the near-term? While the Fed has clearly stopped raising rates, and will be ending QT shortly, the ECB is discussing further stimulus, the BOJ is actively adding stimulus, the PBOC is actively adding stimulus and the BOE remains mired in the Brexit uncertainty with no ability to tighten policy ahead of a conclusion there. In other words, the US is still the belle of the ball when it comes to currencies, and there is no reason to expect the dollar to start to decline anytime soon. In truth, given the idea that current policies are ostensibly priced into the market already, and that there are no changes seen in the medium term, I imagine that we are setting up for a pretty long period of limited movement in the G10 space, although specific EMG currencies could still surprise.

On the data front, it is particularly quiet this week, and with the Fed on the calendar for next week, there will be no more speakers until the meeting.

Today New Home Sales 650K
Thursday Initial Claims 200K
  Durable Goods 0.8%
  -ex Transport 0.2%
Friday Q1 GDP (revised) 2.1%
  Michigan Sentiment 97.0

We will see the final data point in this month’s housing story, which has been pretty lousy so far as both Housing Starts and Existing Home Sales disappointed last week. (Anecdotally, I see the slowdown in my neighborhood, where historically there have been fewer than 2 homes for sale at any given time, and there are currently 7, with some having been on the market for at least 9 months.) We also see the second look at Q1 GDP, with a modest downtick expected to 2.1%, still running at most economists’ view of potential, and clearly much faster than seen in either Europe or Japan. As I said, there is nothing that points to a weaker dollar, although significant dollar strength doesn’t seem likely either. I think we are in for some (more) quiet times in FX.

Good luck
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